• Arabidopsis;
  • auxin redistribution;
  • lateral root;
  • mild salt stress;
  • SOS3;
  • the SOS signaling


  • The SOS signaling pathway plays an important role in plant salt tolerance. However, little is known about how the SOS pathway modulates organ development in response to salt stress. Here, the involvement of SOS signaling in NaCl-induced lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis was assessed.
  • Wild-type and sos3-1 mutant seedlings on iso-osmotic concentrations of NaCl and mannitol were analyzed. The marker lines for auxin accumulation, auxin transport, cell division activity and stem cells were also examined.
  • The results showed that ionic effect alleviates the inhibitory effects of osmotic stress on LR development. LR development of the sos3-1 mutant showed increased sensitivity specifically to low salt. Under low-salt conditions, auxin in cotyledons and LR primordia (LRP) of the sos3-1 mutant was markedly reduced. Decreases in auxin polar transport of mutant roots may cause insufficient auxin supply, resulting in defects not only in LR initiation but also in cell division activity in LRP.
  • Our data uncover a novel role of the SOS3 gene in modulation of LR developmental plasticity and adaptation in response to low salt stress, and reveal a new mechanism for plants to sense and adapt to small changes of salt.