• eutrophication;
  • Lobelia dortmanna;
  • organic enrichment;
  • oxygen;
  • anoxia;
  • photosynthesis;
  • sediment biogeochemistry;
  • stress


  • Lobelia dortmanna thrives in oligotrophic, softwater lakes thanks to O2 and CO2 exchange across roots and uptake of sediment nutrients. We hypothesize that low gas permeability of leaves constrains Lobelia to pristine habitats because plants go anoxic in the dark if O2 vanishes from sediments.
  • We added organic matter to sediments and followed O2 dynamics in plants and sediments using microelectrodes. To investigate plant stress, nutrient content and photosynthetic capacity of leaves were measured.
  • Small additions of organic matter triggered O2 depletion and accumulation of NH4+, Fe2+ and CO2 in sediments. O2 in leaf lacunae fluctuated from above air saturation in the light to anoxia late in the dark in natural sediments, but organic enrichment prolonged anoxia because of higher O2 consumption and restricted uptake from the water. Leaf N and P dropped below minimum thresholds for cell function in enriched sediments and was accompanied by critically low chlorophyll and photosynthesis.
  • We propose that anoxic stress restricts ATP formation and constrains transfer of nutrients to leaves. Brief anoxia in sediments and leaf lacunae late at night is a recurring summer phenomenon in Lobelia populations, but increased input of organic matter prolongs anoxia and reduces survival.