Fig. S1 Mean total concentrations of rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) in flag leaf and grain, for rice panicles exposed to 333 μM of one of five arsenic treatments, together with 1 mM Rb and Sr, or, in the case of the zero exposure controls, ultrapure, MilliQ water only.

Fig. S2 Dose–response curves showing mean arsenic concentrations in grain and flag leaf for panicles exposed to increasing levels of arsenite or DMA (0, 33, 133 and 333 μM) via the cut flag leaf on intact plants.

Fig. S3 Mean total solution uptake for panicles treated with 0, 33, 133 and 333 μM arsenite or DMA via the cut flag leaf on intact plants.

Fig. S4 Chromatograms showing arsenic speciation in fresh leaf extracts of arsenite- and arsenate-fed flag leaves together with a standard mix.

Fig. S5 Chromatograms showing arsenic speciation in leaf feeding vials of arsenite and arsenate.

Fig. S6 Fluorescence microtomography images showing distributions of arsenic for virtual cross-sections of rice grain exposed to arsenite, arsenate, MMA or DMA via the excised panicle stem or the cut flag leaf on intact plants.

Fig. S7 Mean total concentrations of Rb and Sr in rice grain, husk and flag leaf for excised rice panicles subjected to a stem-girdling treatment and hydroponically fed, over a 48 h period, nutrient solution.

Methods S1 Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling.

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