- •Plant immunity is activated by sensing either conserved microbial signatures, called pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs), or specific effectors secreted by pathogens. However, it is not known why most microbes are nonpathogenic in most plant species.
- •Nonhost resistance (NHR) consists of multiple layers of innate immunity and protects plants from the vast majority of potentially pathogenic microbes. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) has been implicated in race-specific disease resistance. However, the role of ETI in NHR is unclear.
- •Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) T1 is pathogenic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) yet nonpathogenic in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that, in addition to the type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent effector (T3SE) avrRpt2, a second T3SE of Pto T1, hopAS1, triggers ETI in nonhost Arabidopsis.
- •hopAS1 is broadly present in P. syringae strains, contributes to virulence in tomato, and is quantitatively required for Arabidopsis NHR to Pto T1. Strikingly, all tested P. syringae strains that are pathogenic in Arabidopsis carry truncated hopAS1 variants of forms, demonstrating that HopAS1-triggered immunity plays an important role in Arabidopsis NHR to a broad-range of P. syringae strains.