Gene flow and simulation of transgene dispersal from hybrid poplar plantations
Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 193, Issue 4, pages 903–915, March 2012
How to Cite
DiFazio, S. P., Leonardi, S., Slavov, G. T., Garman, S. L., Adams, W. T. and Strauss, S. H. (2012), Gene flow and simulation of transgene dispersal from hybrid poplar plantations. New Phytologist, 193: 903–915. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04012.x
- Issue published online: 2 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012
- Received: 1 August 2011, Accepted: 14 November 2011
- forest biotechnology;
- gene flow;
- simulation model;
- •Gene flow is a primary determinant of potential ecological impacts of transgenic trees. However, gene flow is a complex process that must be assessed in the context of realistic genetic, management, and environmental conditions.
- •We measured gene flow from hybrid poplar plantations using morphological and genetic markers, and developed a spatially explicit landscape model to simulate pollination, dispersal, establishment, and mortality in the context of historical and projected disturbance and land-use regimes.
- •Most pollination and seed establishment occurred within 450 m of the source, with a very long tail. Modeled transgene flow was highly context-dependent, strongly influenced by the competitive effects of transgenes, transgenic fertility, plantation rotation length, disturbance regime, and spatial and temporal variation in selection. The use of linked infertility genes even if imperfect, substantially reduced transgene flow in a wide range of modeled scenarios. The significance of seed and vegetative dispersal was highly dependent on plantation size.
- •Our empirical and modeling studies suggest that transgene spread can be spatially extensive. However, the amount of spread is highly dependent on ecological and management context, and can be greatly limited or prevented by management or mitigation genes such as those that cause sexual infertility.