SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alméras T, Gril J. 2007. Mechanical analysis of the strains generated by water tension in plant stems. Part I: stress transmission from the water to the cell walls. Tree Physiology 27: 15051516.
  • Balfour DA, Midgley JJ. 2006. Fire induced stem death in an African acacia is not caused by canopy scorching. Austral Ecology 31: 892896.
  • Bova AS, Dickinson MB. 2005. Linking surface-fire behavior, stem heating, and tissue necrosis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 814822.
  • Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM. 2005. Water stress deforms tracheids peripheral to the leaf vein of a tropical conifer. Plant Physiology 137: 11391146.
  • Butler BW, Dickinson MB. 2010. Tree injury and mortality in fires: developing process-based models. Fire Ecology 6: 5579.
  • Choczynska J, Johnson EA. 2009. A soil heat and water transfer model to predict belowground grass rhizome bud death in a grass fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 277287.
  • Clearwater MJ, Goldstein G. 2005. Embolism repair and long distance water transport. In: Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA, eds. Vascular transport in plants. New York, NY, USA: Elsevier, 375399.
  • Cochard H, Barigah T, Herbert E, Caupin F. 2007. Cavitation in plants at low temperature: is sap transport limited by the tensile strength of water as expected from Briggs’ Z-tube experiment? New Phytologist 173: 571575.
  • Cochard H, Cruiziat P, Tyree MT. 1992. Use of positive pressures to establish vulnerability curves : further support for the air-seeding hypothesis and implications for pressure–volume analysis. Plant Physiology 100: 205209.
  • Cochard H, Froux F, Mayr S, Coutand C. 2004. Xylem wall collapse in water-stressed pine needles. Plant Physiology 134: 401408.
  • Cochard H, Holtta T, Herbette S, Delzon S, Mencuccini M. 2009. New insights into the mechanisms of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers. Plant Physiology 151: 949954.
  • Costa J, Oliveira L, Viegas D, Neto L. 1991. On the temperature distribution inside a tree under fire conditions. International Journal of Wildland Fire 1: 8796.
  • Crombie D, Hipkins M, Milburn J. 1985. Gas penetration of pit membranes in the xylem of Rhododendron as the cause of acoustically detectable sap cavitation. Functional Plant Biology 12: 445453.
  • Delzon S, Douthe C, Sala A, Cochard H. 2010. Mechanism of water-stress induced cavitation in conifers: bordered pit structure and function support the hypothesis of seal capillary-seeding. Plant, Cell & Environment 33: 21012111.
  • Dickinson MB, Johnson EA. 2001. Fire effects on trees. In: Johnson EA, Miyanishi K, eds. Forest fires: behavior and ecological effects. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 477525.
  • Dickinson MB, Johnson EA. 2004. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 546559.
  • Dickinson MB, Jolliff J, Bova AS. 2004. Vascular cambium necrosis in forest fires: using hyperbolic temperature regimes to estimate parameters of a tissue-response model. Australian Journal of Botany 52: 757763.
  • Dixon HH, Joly J. 1894. On the ascent of sap. Annals of Botany 8: 468470.
  • Ducrey M, Duhoux F, Huc R, Rigolot E. 1996. The ecophysiological and growth responses of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) to controlled heating applied to the base of the trunk. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 13661374.
  • Fahnestock GR, Hare RC. 1964. Heating of tree trunks in surface fires. Journal of Forestry 62: 799805.
  • Falster DS, Warton DI, Wright IJ. 2006. SMATR: standardised major axis tests and routines, version 2.0. URL http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/ecology/SMATR
  • Hacke U, Sauter JJ. 1995. Vulnerability of xylem to embolism in relation to leaf water potential and stomatal conductance in Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea and Populus balsamifera. Journal of Experimental Botany 46: 11771183.
  • Hacke UG, Sperry JS, Pockman WT, Davis SD, McCulloh KA. 2001. Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia 126: 457461.
  • Hare RC. 1965. Bark surface and cambium temperatures in simulated forest fires. Journal of Forestry 63: 437440.
  • Hartford R, Frandsen W. 1992. When it’s hot, it’s hot... or maybe it’s not! (surface flaming may not portend extensive soil heating). International Journal of Wildland Fire 2: 139144.
  • Hengst GE, Dawson JO. 1994. Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the central hardwood region of North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 688696.
  • Hillis WE, Rozsa AN. 1985. High temperature and chemical effects on wood stability. Wood Science and Technology 19: 5766.
  • Hunter AJ. 2001. The distribution of mechanical stresses in the cell wall of wood induced by capillary tension in the lumen water – an approximate analysis. Wood Science and Technology 35: 283296.
  • Innes TC. 1995. Stress model of a wood fibre in relation to collapse. Wood Science and Technology 29: 363376.
  • Irvine GM. 1984. The glass transitions of lignin and hemicellulose and their measurement by differential thermal analysis. Tappi 67: 118121.
  • Jarbeau JA, Ewers FW, Davis SD. 1995. The mechanism of water-stress-induced embolism in two species of chaparral shrubs. Plant, Cell & Environment 18: 189196.
  • Jones JL, Webb BW, Butler BW, Dickinson MB, Jimenez D, Reardon J, Bova AS. 2006. Prediction and measurement of thermally induced cambial tissue necrosis in tree stems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 317.
  • Jones JL, Webb BW, Jimenez D, Reardon J, Butler B. 2004. Development of an advanced one-dimensional stem heating model for application in surface fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 2030.
  • Kavanagh KL, Dickinson MB, Bova AS. 2010. A way forward for fire-caused tree mortality prediction: modeling a physiological consequence of fire. Fire Ecology 6: 8094.
  • Kelley S, Rials T, Glasser W. 1987. Relaxation behaviour of the amorphous components of wood. Journal of Materials Science 22: 617624.
  • Kramer P. J., Kozlowski TT. 1960. Physiology of trees. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
  • Lewin M, Goldstein IS, eds. 1991. Wood structure and composition. New York, NY, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  • Lide DR, ed. 2006. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. New York, NY, USA: CRC Press.
  • van Mantgem P, Schwartz M. 2003. Bark heat resistance of small trees in Californian mixed conifer forests: testing some model assumptions. Forest Ecology and Management 178: 341352.
  • Mayr S, Cochard H, Améglio T, Kikuta SB. 2007. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies. Plant Physiology 143: 6067.
  • Michaletz ST, Johnson EA. 2006a. Foliage influences forced convection heat transfer in conifer branches and buds. New Phytologist 170: 8798.
  • Michaletz ST, Johnson EA. 2006b. A heat transfer model of crown scorch in forest fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 28392851.
  • Michaletz ST, Johnson EA. 2007. How forest fires kill trees: a review of the fundamental biophysical processes. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22: 500515.
  • Michaletz ST, Johnson EA. 2008. A biophysical process model of tree mortality in surface fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 20132029.
  • Midgley JJ, Lawes MJ, Chamaillé-Jammes S. 2010. TURNER REVIEW No. 19. Savanna woody plant dynamics: the role of fire and herbivory, separately and synergistically. Australian Journal of Botany 58: 111.
  • Miyanishi K. 2001. Duff consumption. In: Johnson EA, Miyanishi K, eds. Forest fires: behavior and ecological effects. New York, NY, USA: Academic Press, 437475.
  • Nobel PS. 2005. Physicochemical and environmental plant physiology. New York, NY, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Noel A. 1970. The girdled tree. The Botanical Review 36: 162195.
  • Oertli JJ. 1971. The stability of water under tension in the xylem. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie 65: 195209.
  • Peterson DL, Ryan KC. 1986. Modeling postfire conifer mortality for long-range planning. Environmental Management 10: 797808.
  • Pickard WF. 1981. The ascent of sap in plants. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 37: 181229.
  • Pinard MA, Huffman J. 1997. Fire resistance and bark properties of trees in a seasonally dry forest in eastern Bolivia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 727740.
  • Rego F, Rigolot E. 1990. Heat transfer through bark – a simple predictive model. In: Goldammer JG, Jenkins MJ, eds. Fire in ecosystem dynamics: proceedings of the third international symposium on fire ecology. The Hague, the Netherlands: SPB Academic Publishing, 157161.
  • Reifsnyder WE, Herrington LP, Spalt KW. 1967. Thermophysical properties of bark of shortleaf, longleaf, and red pine. Bulletin No. 70 . New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University School of Forestry.
  • Riande E, Díaz-Calleja R, Prolongo MG, Masegosa RM, Salom C. 2000. Polymer viscoelasticity: stress and strain in practice. New York, NY, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  • Rood SB, Patiño S, Coombs K, Tyree MT. 2000. Branch sacrifice: cavitation-associated drought adaptation of riparian cottonwoods. Trees – Structure and Function 14: 248257.
  • Rundel PW. 1973. The relationship between basal fire scars and crown damage in giant sequoia. Ecology 54: 210213.
  • Ryan KC. 2000. Effects of fire injury on water relations of ponderosa pine. In: Moser WK, Moser CF, eds. Fire and forest ecology: innovative silviculture and vegetation management. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings No. 21. Tallahassee, FL, USA: Tall Timbers Research Station 5866.
  • Ryan KC, Frandsen W. 1991. Basal injury from smoldering fires in mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. International Journal of Wildland Fire 1: 107118.
  • Salmén L. 1984. Viscoelastic properties of in situ lignin under water-saturated conditions. Journal of Materials Science 19: 30903096.
  • Schoonenberg T, Pinard M, Woodward S. 2003. Responses to mechanical wounding and fire in tree species characteristic of seasonally dry tropical forest of Bolivia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 330338.
  • Siau JF. 1984. Transport processes in wood. New York, NY, USA: Springer-Verlag.
  • Smith KT, Sutherland EK. 1999. Fire-scar formation and compartmentalization in oak. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 166171.
  • Smith KT, Sutherland EK. 2001. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods. Tree-Ring Research 57: 141147.
  • Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ. 1995. Biometry: the principles and practices of statistics in biological research. New York, NY, USA: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Spalt KW, Reifsnyder WE. 1962. Bark characteristics and fire resistance: a literature survey. New Orleans, LA, USA: USDA Forest Service.
  • Speight JG, ed. 2005. Lange’s handbook of chemistry. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Sperry JS, Hacke UG. 2004. Analysis of circular bordered pit function I. Angiosperm vessels with homogenous pit membranes. American Journal of Botany 91: 369385.
  • Sperry JS, Hacke UG, Oren R, Comstock JP. 2002. Water deficits and hydraulic limits to leaf water supply. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 251263.
  • Sperry JS, Perry AH, Sullivan JEM. 1991. Pit membrane degradation and air-embolism formation in ageing xylem vessels of Populus tremuloides Michx. Journal of Experimental Botany 42: 13991406.
  • Sperry JS, Saliendra NZ. 1994. Intra- and inter-plant variation in xylem cavitation in Betula occidentalis. Plant, Cell & Environment 17: 12331241.
  • Sperry JS, Saliendra NZ, Pockman WT, Cochard H, Cruiziat P, Davis SD, Ewers FW, Tyree MT. 1996. New evidence for large negative xylem pressures and their measurement by the pressure chamber method. Plant, Cell & Environment 19: 427436.
  • Sperry JS, Tyree MT. 1988. Mechanism of water stress-induced xylem embolism. Plant Physiology 88: 581587.
  • Sperry JS, Tyree MT. 1990. Water-stress-induced xylem embolism in three species of conifers. Plant, Cell & Environment 13: 427436.
  • Sperry JS, Tyree MT, Donnelly JR. 1988. Vulnerability of xylem to embolism in a mangrove vs an inland species of Rhizophoraceae. Physiologia Plantarum 74: 276283.
  • Tyree MT, Kolb KJ, Rood SB, Patiño S. 1994. Vulnerability to drought-induced cavitation of riparian cottonwoods in Alberta: a possible factor in the decline of the ecosystem? Tree Physiology 14: 455466.
  • Tyree MT, Zimmermann MH. 2002. Xylem structure and the ascent of sap. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
  • Uhl C, Kauffman JB. 1990. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the eastern Amazon. Ecology 71: 437449.
  • Van Wagner CE. 1973. Height of crown scorch in forest fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 3: 373378.
  • Vargaftik NB, Volkov BN, Voljak LD. 1983. International tables of the surface tension of water. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 12: 817820.
  • Vázquez G, Alvarez E, Navaza JM. 1995. Surface tension of alcohol + water from 20 to 50°C. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 40: 611614.
  • Vines R. 1968. Heat transfer through bark, and the resistance of trees to fire. Australian Journal of Botany 16: 499514.
  • Warton DI, Wright IJ, Falster DS, Westoby M. 2006. Bivariate line-fitting methods for allometry. Biological Reviews 81: 259291.
  • Wolcott M, Kamke F, Dillard D. 1990. Fundamentals of flakeboard manufacture: viscoelastic behavior of the wood component. Wood and Fiber Science 22: 345361.
  • Yeung EC. 1998. A beginners’ guide to the study of plant structure. In: Karcher SJ, ed. Tested studies for laboratory teaching, Vol. 19. Proceedings of the 19th workshop/conference of the association for biology laboratory education. Lafayette, IN, USA: Purdue University Press, 125141.
  • Zimmermann MH, Jeje AA. 1981. Vessel-length distribution in stems of some American woody plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 59: 18821892.