Fig. S1 Phylogenetic analysis of full length AtPAP2 protein sequence with related proteins in the other plant species.

Fig. S2 Amino acid sequence alignment of AtPAP2 with its homologous sequences from other plants.

Fig. S3 Verification of AtPAP2 T-DNA mutant line.

Fig. S4 Western blot analysis of AtPAP2 in Arabidopsis tissues.

Fig. S5 Expression of AtPAP2 under various treatments.

Fig. S6 Growth phenotypes of genetically modified Arabidopsis.

Fig. S7 The TMDCT region of AtPAP2 contains targeting signal to mitochondria.

Fig. S8 AtPAP2-GFP constructs did not co-localize with ER or Golgi markers.

Fig. S9 AtPAP2-GFP constructs did not co-localize with peroxisome marker.

Fig. S10 Analysis of SnRK1 proteins.

Fig. S11 Principal component analysis of 1H-NMR data and GC-MS data.

Table S1 Signature motifs of AtPAP2-like proteins

Table S2 Relative metabolite content of shoots of 20-d-old At-PAP2 OE lines

Table S3 Primers used in this study

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