Metabolic dynamics during autumn cold acclimation within and among populations of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
Article first published online: 16 JAN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust
Special Issue: Featured papers on ‘Bioenergy trees’
Volume 194, Issue 1, pages 192–205, April 2012
How to Cite
Dauwe, R., Holliday, J. A., Aitken, S. N. and Mansfield, S. D. (2012), Metabolic dynamics during autumn cold acclimation within and among populations of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). New Phytologist, 194: 192–205. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04027.x
- Issue published online: 24 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 16 JAN 2012
- Received: 4 October 2011, Accepted: 27 November 2011
- cold hardening;
- freeze tolerance;
- •Autumnal cold acclimation in conifers is a complex process, the timing and extent of which vary widely along latitudinal gradients for many tree species and reflect local adaptation to climate. Although previous studies have detailed some aspects of the metabolic remodelling that accompanies cold acclimation in conifers, little is known about global metabolic dynamics, or how these changes vary among phenotypically divergent populations.
- •Using untargeted GC-MS metabolite profiling, we monitored metabolic dynamics during autumnal cold acclimation in three populations of Sitka spruce from the southern, central, and northern portions of the species range, which differ in both the timing and extent of cold acclimation.
- •Latitudinal variation was evident in the nature, intensity, and timing of metabolic events. Early development of strong freezing tolerance in the northern population was associated with a transient accumulation of amino acids. By late autumn, metabolic profiles were highly similar between the northern and central populations, whereas profiles for the southern population were relatively distinct.
- •Our results provide insight into the metabolic architecture of latitudinal adaptive variation in autumn acclimation and show that different mechanisms are the basis of early October cold hardiness and autumn-acclimated cold hardiness.