• Arabidopsis thaliana G protein β subunit (AGB1);
  • Arabidopsis thaliana G protein γ subunit (AGG3);
  • cell proliferation;
  • Arabidopsis thaliana G protein α subunit (GPA1);
  • organ size and shape


  • Control of organ size and shape by cell proliferation and cell expansion is a fundamental developmental process, but the mechanisms that set the size and shape of determinate organs are largely unknown in plants.
  • Molecular, genetic, cytological and biochemical approaches were used to characterize the roles of the Arabidopsis thaliana G protein γ subunit (AGG3) gene in organ growth.
  • Here, we describe A. thaliana AGG3, which promotes petal growth by increasing the period of cell proliferation. Both the N-terminal region and the C-terminal domains of AGG3 are necessary for the function of AGG3. By contrast, analysis of a series of AGG3 derivatives with deletions in specific domains showed that the deletion of any of these domains cannot completely abolish the function of AGG3. The GFP-AGG3 fusion protein is localized to the plasma membrane. The predicted transmembrane domain plays an important role in the plasma membrane localization of AGG3. Genetic analyses revealed that AGG3 action requires a functional G protein α subunit (GPA1) and G protein β subunit (AGB1).
  • Our findings demonstrate that AGG3, GPA1 and AGB1 act in the same genetic pathway to influence organ size and shape in A. thaliana.