The magnitude of hydraulic redistribution by plant roots: a review and synthesis of empirical and modeling studies
Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust
Volume 194, Issue 2, pages 337–352, April 2012
How to Cite
Neumann, R. B. and Cardon, Z. G. (2012), The magnitude of hydraulic redistribution by plant roots: a review and synthesis of empirical and modeling studies. New Phytologist, 194: 337–352. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04088.x
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012
- Received: 13 November 2011, Accepted: 19 January 2012
- 2009. Hydraulic redistribution may stimulate decomposition. Biogeochemistry 95: 323–333. , .
- 2007. Mycorrhizal fungi: highways for water and nutrients in arid soils. Vadose Zone Journal 6: 291–297. .
- 2008. A model for hydraulic redistribution incorporating coupled soil-root moisture transport. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 12: 55–74. , .
- 2008. Seasonal drought stress in the Amazon: reconciling models and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 113: G00B01. doi: 10.1029/2007JG000644. , , , , , .
- 2008. Importance of internal hydraulic redistribution for prolonging the lifespan of roots in dry soil. Plant, Cell & Environment 31: 177–186. , , , .
- 2000. Soil material, temperature, and salinity effects on calibration of multisensor capacitance probes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 1940–1946. , , .
- 2010. Water uptake and hydraulic redistribution across large woody root systems to 20m depth. Plant, Cell & Environment 33: 2132–2148. , , .
- 1930. Maintenance of moisture-equilibrium and nutrition of plants at and below the wilting percentage. Arizona Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 29: 137–177. .
- 1934. Plant association and survival, and the build-up of moisture in semi-arid soils. Arizona Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 53: 95–123. , .
- 1984. The effects of texture on the resistance to water movement within the rhizosphere. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48: 266–270. , , .
- 2002. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water during summer drought in two contrasting Pacific Northwest coniferous forests. Tree Physiology 22: 1107–1117. , , , .
- 2006. Hydraulic redistribution in a Douglas-fir forest: lessons from system manipulations. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 138–150. , , , , .
- 1982. A calibration model for screen-caged Peltier thermocouple psychrometers. USDA Research Paper INT-293 , 1–160. , .
- 1998. The redistribution of soil water by tree root systems. Oecologia 115: 306–311. , , , .
- 2001. Tree roots: conduits for deep recharge of soil water. Oecologia 126: 158–165. , , , , .
- 2000. Seasonal water acquisition and redistribution in the Australian woody phreatophyte, Banksia prionotes. Annals of Botany 85: 215–224. , , , .
- 2007. Nighttime stomatal conductance and transpiration in C3 and C4 plants. Plant Physiology 143: 4–10. , , .
- 1998. Hydraulic lift: consequences of water efflux from the roots of plants. Oecologia 113: 151–161. , , .
- 1989. Hydaulic lift – water efflux from upper roots improves effectiveness of water uptake by deep roots. Oecologia 79: 1–5. , .
- 2011. Carbon inputs and water uptake in deep soils of an eastern Amazon forest. Forest Science 57: 51–57. , , , , , , , , .
- 1993. Hydraulic lift and water use by plants: implications for water balance, performance and plant-plant interactions. Oecologia 95: 565–574. .
- 2007. Nighttime transpiration in woody plants from contrasting ecosystems. Tree Physiology 27: 561–575. , , , , , , , .
- 2002. Root channel macropores enhance downward movement of water in a Mojave Desert ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 50: 99–108. , .
- 2010. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by roots affects whole-stand evapotranspiration and net ecosystem carbon exchange. New Phytologist 187: 171–183. , , , , , , .
- 2006. Diurnal and seasonal variation in root xylem embolism in neotropical savanna woody species: impact on stomatal control of plant water status. Plant, Cell & Environment 29: 26–35. , , , , , .
- 2004. Native root xylem embolism and stomatal closure in stands of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine: mitigation by hydraulic redistribution. Oecologia 141: 7–16. , , , , .
- 1998. Modelling of the hydraulic architecture of root systems: an integrated approach to water absorption – model description. Annals of Botany 81: 213–223. , , .
- 2006. Water uptake by plant roots: II – modelling of water transfer in the soil root-system with explicit account of flow within the root system – comparison with experiments. Plant and Soil 283: 99–117. , , , .
- 2007. Common mycorrhizal networks provide a potential pathway for the transfer of hydraulically lifted water between plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 1473–1483. , , .
- 1996. Hydraulic lift and its influence on the water content of the rhizosphere: an example from sugar maple, Acer saccharum. Oecologia 108: 273–278. , .
- 2004. Species-specific patterns of hydraulic lift in co-occurring adult trees and grasses in a sandhill community. Oecologia 138: 341–349. , , .
- 2009. Tree species fine-root demography parallels habitat specialization across a sandhill soil resource gradient. Ecology 90: 1773–1787. , , .
- 2001. Modeling root water uptake in hydrological and climate models. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 2797–2809. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2004. Field calibration of a capacitance soil water probe in heterogeneous fields. Australian Journal of Soil Research 42: 289–299. , , .
- 2009. Hydraulic redistribution by Protea “Sylvia” (Proteaceae) facilitates soil water replenishment and water acquisition by an understorey grass and shrub. Functional Plant Biology 36: 752–760. , , , .
- 1999. Diurnal variations in hydraulic conductivity and root pressure can be correlated with the expression of putative aquaporins in the roots of Lotus japonicus. Planta 210: 50–60. , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Hydraulic lift: a potentially important ecosystem process. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13: 232–235. , .
- 2009. Night-time transpiration can decrease hydraulic redistribution. Plant, Cell & Environment 32: 1060–1070. , , , .
- 2004. Hydraulic redistribution by a dominant, warm-desert phreatophyte: seasonal patterns and response to precipitation pulses. Functional Ecology 18: 530–538. , , , , .
- 2003. Contrasting patterns of hydraulic redistribution in three desert phreatophytes. Oecologia 135: 167–175. , , , .
- 2000. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of soil water potential in the rhizosphere of blue oaks: evidence for hydraulic lift. Oecologia 125: 459–465. , .
- 2000. Belowground consequences of vegetation change and their treatment in models. Ecological Applications 10: 470–483. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2000. Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14: 795–825. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2006. Hydraulic lift in cork oak trees in a savannah-type Mediterranean ecosystem and its contribution to the local water balance. Plant and Soil 282: 361–378. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1978. Water-movement through plant roots. Annals of Botany 42: 493–508. , .
- 2001. Field and laboratory calibration and test of TDR and capacitance techniques for indirect measurement of soil water content. Australian Journal of Soil Research 39: 1371–1386. , .
- 2009. Significance of tree roots for preferential infiltration in stagnic soils. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 13: 1809–1821. , , .
- 2005. Root functioning modifies seasonal climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102: 17576–17581. , , , .
- 2005. Hydraulic redistribution through the root systems of senesced plants. Ecology 86: 633–642. , , , , .
- 2011. Ectomycorrhizas and water relations of trees: a review. Mycorrhiza 21: 71–90. , .
- 2004 The Community Land Model’s dynamic global vegetation model (CLM-DGVM): technical description and user’s guide. NCAR Tech. Note TN-459 + IA. , , , .
- 2005. Long-term hydraulic acclimation to soil texture and radiation load in cotton. Plant, Cell & Environment 28: 492–499. , , .
- 2009. Connecting ecohydrology and hydropedology in desert shrubs: stemflow as a source of preferential flow in soils. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 13: 1133–1144. , , , .
- 2003. Hydraulic lift in Acacia tortilis trees on an East African savanna. Oecologia 134: 293–300. , , , , .
- 1996. Analysis of transpiration results from the RICE and PILPS workshop. Global and Planetary Change 13: 73–88. , , , , , , , , .
- 2010. Soil moisture depletion under simulated drought in the Amazon: impacts on deep root uptake. New Phytologist 187: 592–607. , , , , .
- 1996. Stemflow, throughfall and channelization of stemflow by roots in three Chihuahuan desert shrubs. Journal of Arid Environments 32: 271–287. , .
- 2007. Aquaporin-mediated changes in hydraulic conductivity of deep tree roots accessed via caves. Plant, Cell & Environment 30: 1411–1421. , , , , , .
- 2004. Converging patterns of uptake and hydraulic redistribution of soil water in contrasting woody vegetation types. Tree Physiology 24: 919–928. , , , , , .
- 2002. On a better understanding of hydraulic lift: a numerical study. Water Resources Research 38: 1183. , , .
- 1980. Further observations on the water relations of Prosopis tamarugo of the northern Atacama desert. Oecologia 44: 177–180. , , , .
- 2001. A method for scaling vegetation dynamics: the ecosystem demography model (ED). Ecological Monographs 71: 557–585. , , .
- 2003. Hydraulic lift in a neotropical savanna. Functional Ecology 17: 573–581. , , , , , , .
- 2001. Comparison of laboratory- and field-derived soil water retention curves for a fine sand soil using tensiometric, resistance and capacitance methods. Plant and Soil 234: 153–157. , , .
- 1994. The role of deep roots in the hydrological and carbon cycles of Amazonian forests and pastures. Nature 372: 666–669. , , , , , , , , , .
- 1992a. Hydraulic conductances of the soil, the root soil air gap, and the root – changes for desert succulents in drying soil. Journal of Experimental Botany 43: 319–326. , .
- 1992b. Shrinkage of attached roots of Opuntia ficu-indica in response to lowered water potentials – predicted consequences for water uptake or loss to soil. Annals of Botany 70: 485–491. , .
- 2004. Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-461 + STR. 1–186. , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Hydraulic redistribution in three Amazonian trees. Oecologia 145: 354–363. , , , .
- 2010a. Hydraulic lift: soil processes and transpiration in the Mediterranean leguminous shrub Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. Plant and Soil 329: 447–456. , , .
- 2010b. Hydraulic lift through transpiration suppression in shrubs from two arid ecosystems: patterns and control mechanisms. Oecologia 163: 855–865. , , , , , .
- 2003. Direct nocturnal water transfer from oaks to their mycorrhizal symbionts during severe soil drying. Oecologia 134: 55–64. , , .
- 1967. Psychrometric measurement of soil water potential without precise temperature control. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 31: 297–300. , .
- 2011. A root is a root is a root? Water uptake rates of Citrus root orders. Plant, Cell & Environment 34: 33–42. , , .
- 1931. Capillary conduction of liquids through porous mediums. Physics 1: 318–333. .
- 1987. Hydraulic lift: substantial nocturnal water transport between soil layers by Artemisia tridentata roots. Oecologia 73: 486–489. , .
- 2004. Seasonality of water and heat fluxes over a tropical forest in eastern Amazonia. Ecological Applications 14: S22–S32. , , , , , , .
- 2005. Rainfall exclusion in an eastern Amazonian forest alters soil water movement and depth of water uptake. American Journal of Botany 92: 443–455. , , , .
- 2003. Rapid soil moisture recharge to depth by roots in a stand of Artemisia tridentata. Ecology 84: 757–764. , , , .
- 2002. Hydraulic redistribution in a stand of Artemisia tridentata: evaluation of benefits to transpiration assessed with a simulation model. Oecologia 130: 173–184. , , , , .
- 1967. Emanation of water from underground plant parts. Plant and Soil 27: 81–91. , , .
- 2008a. Temporal dynamics of stem expansion and contraction in savanna trees: withdrawal and recharge of stored water. Tree Physiology 28: 469–480. , , , , , .
- 2008b. Biophysical and life-history determinants of hydraulic lift in Neotropical savanna trees. Functional Ecology 22: 773–786. , , , , , , , , .
- 2010. Hydraulic lift in a Neotropical savanna: experimental manipulation and model simulations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 629–639. , , , , .
- 2008. Effect of local soil hydraulic conductivity drop using a three-dimensional root water uptake model. Vadose Zone Journal 7: 1089–1098. , , , , .
- 2008. An optimality-based model of the coupled soil moisture and root dynamics. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 12: 913–932. , , , , .
- 2008. The ecohydrologic significance of hydraulic redistribution in a semiarid savanna. Water Resources Research 44: W02440. , , .
- 1996. The UNSATCHEM software package for simulating the one-dimensional variably saturated water flow, heat transport, carbon dioxide production and transport, and multicomponent solute transport with major ion equilibrium and kinetic chemistry, version 2.0. Research report no. 14. Riverside, CA, USA: US Salinity Laboratory, ARS/USDA. , , .
- 2008. Onset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: scaling soil water dynamics from millimeters to meters. Water Resources Research 44: W01432. , , .
- 1999. Reverse flow of sap in tree roots and downward siphoning of water by Grevillea robusta. Functional Ecology 13: 256–264. , , , .
- 2008. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquisition? Plant and Soil 306: 159–166. , , , .
- 2002. Capacitance devices. In: Dane JH, Topp GC, eds. Methods of soil analysis. Part 4 – Physical methods. Madison, WI, USA: Soil Science Society of America, 463–474. , .
- 1998. How does water get through roots? Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 775–788. , .
- 1980. A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44: 892–898. .
- 2011. Assessing the potential hydrological impacts of hydraulic redistribution in Amazonia using a numerical modeling approach. Water Resources Research 47: W02528. .
- 2011. Droughts, hydraulic redistribution, and their impact on vegetation composition in the Amazon forest. Plant Ecology 212: 663–673. , , , .
- 2009. The role of hydraulic lift and subsoil P placement in P uptake of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Plant and Soil 325: 263–275. , , , .
- 2011. In situ separation of root hydraulic redistribution of soil water from liquid and vapor transport. Oecologia 166: 899–911. , , , .
- 2005. Vertical stratification of soil water storage and release dynamics in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 130: 39–58. , , , .
- 2007. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water in two old-growth coniferous forests: quantifying patterns and controls. New Phytologist 173: 753–765. , , , , .
- 1993. The influence of shade and clouds on the soil-water potential – the buffered behavior of hydraulic lift. Plant and Soil 157: 83–95. , , .
- 1999. Temperature effects on soil bulk dielectric permittivity measured by time domain reflectometry: experimental evidence and hypothesis development. Water Resources Research 35: 361–369. , .
- 1999. Hydraulic lift among native plant species in the Mojave Desert. Plant and Soil 215: 93–102. , .
- 2007. Modeling the dynamic root water uptake and its hydrological impact at the Reserva Jaru site in Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Resarch 112: G04012. , .
- 2005. Soil moisture redistribution as a mechanism of facilitation in Savanna tree-shrub clusters. Oecologia 145: 32–40. , , , .
- 2002. Understanding the hydraulics of porous pipes: tradeoffs between water uptake and root length utilization. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 21: 315–323. , , .