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Fig. S1 Flowchart of the image analysis system.

Fig. S2 Illustration of the vibration stabilization process.

Fig. S3 Edge detection by livewire algorithm.

Fig. S4 Identification of the root midline using the Euclidean distance transform.

Fig. S5 Root growth velocity and growth trajectories.

Fig. S6 Examples of spatio-temporal 3D reconstructions of basal and lateral roots.

Notes S1 Further details of vibration stabilization and image analysis.

Video S1 Time-lapse movie of a growing bean seedling before stabilization showing the effect of vibration caused by the ventilation fans in the growth chamber; after stabilization, this movie is shown as Video S2.

Video S2 Stabilized time-lapse movie of a growing bean seedling showing the development of basal roots during a period of 5 h; dark spots are graphite particles sprinkled on the roots for analysis of local growth.

Video S3 Movie showing growth of an artificially generated root with a unimodal growth zone; black dots were used as marker dots to assess local growth zones.

Video S4 Movie showing growth of an artificially generated root with bifurcating growth zones; black dots were used as marker dots to assess local growth zones.

Video S5 Time-lapse movie of a bean seedling showing emergence and development of basal roots for 48 h.

Video S6 Time-lapse movie of the same bean seedling in Video S2 for 48–70 h showing emergence and growth of lateral roots.

Video S7 Time-lapse movie showing initiation and development of lateral roots of a chickpea seedling during 72 h.

Video S8 Time-lapse movie a bean seedling for 124 h showing emergence and growth of basal and lateral roots; the faint white rectangles show the segments in which spatio-temporal growth patterns of lateral roots were studied in Fig. S6(c,d).

Video S9 Time-lapse movie showing local growth of bean lateral roots during a period of 5 h following sprinkling of graphite particles.

Video S10 Time-lapse movie showing local growth of chickpea lateral roots during a period of 5 h following sprinkling of graphite particles.

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