Fig. S1 The seed packets used in this study, and minute Pyrola asarifolia seeds.

Fig. S2 Spatial distribution of Pyrola asarifolia seed packets buried in the 4×4 m quadrats at the sites 16 and 17.

Fig. S3 Detailed phylogenetic affinities of the clade B Sebacinales associates of Pyrola asarifolia seedlings and adults, using related environmental Sebacinales sequences.

Fig. S4 Pyrola asarifolia roots colonized by a Thelephoraceae at site 1.

Fig. S5 Four Pyrola asarifolia mycorrhizas formed by clade B Sebacinales at site 16.

Table S1 Study sites

Table S2 Experimental design at each site

Table S3 Mycorrhizal root tips from Pyrola asarifolia and either Betula platyphylla (site 16) or Betula ermanii (site 17)

Table S4 Diversity and GenBank accession numbers of Sebacinales clade B sequences found in Pyrola asarifolia seedlings

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