Fig. S1 Relationship of median leaf lifespan of shade-grown seedlings with leaf lifespan and toughness of gap grown seedlings.

Fig. S2 Alternative models to the path models shown in Fig. 4 with adequate fit.

Table S1 Species means for additional leaf traits measured with gap-grown seedlings

Table S2 Correlations between cell wall fibre components and density-corrected toughness

Table S3 Leaf traits measured with seedlings grown in understory shade gardens

Notes S1 Additional methodological details on regeneration guild classification and trait measurements.

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