Fig. S1 Proposed mass fragmentation patterns of NA, DMA, MA and epi-HMA.

Fig. S2 The chemical structures of mugineic acid-family phytosiderophores.

Fig. S3 Chromatograms of the detected PS–Fe (III) complexes in barley root and root exudates.

Fig. S4 Validation of microbial contaminations of nutrient solutions and barley root exudates.

Fig. S5 A scheme of the workflow of the LC-ESI-TOF-MS method for detecting PSs and PS–Fe complexes.

Table S1 LODs and the linear range of NA and DMA standards

Table S2 Recoveries of standards during sample preparation

Table S3 Linearity of compound signal response with serial sample dilution

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