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The interrelationship between biological and social risk factors and cognitive outcome in individuals with myelomeningocele was examined. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was administered to 65 children and young adults, age range 4 to 29 during a recent clinic visit. Unshunted individuals had scores in the average range and individuals with uncomplicated hydrocephalus in the low-average range. Although the level of lesion was found to be most strongly associated with total K-BIT score, examination of subscores indicated that socioeconomic status was the factor most strongly associated with Vocabulary score. The importance of both social and biological factors in predicting cognitive outcome in this population is useful in planning intervention strategies.