A population-based group of 27 children with total blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), born in Sweden from 1980 to 1990, was examined. They constituted all but two of the total of 29 children with total blindness due to ROP known to the nationai register of visually impaired children when reviewed from 1980 to 1 January 1995. All children had a gestational age of less than 31 weeks and most had had a complicated perinatal period. The retinal disease was discovered late, most often after it had already progressed to bilateral retinal detachment. Repeated vitreoretinal surgery had been performed in most children, but postoperative visual function did not improve. Three-quarters of the group had major neurological impairment (mental retardation, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy) at age 4 to 14 years. There was an impression that extensive ophthalmological efforts delayed nenrodevelopmental assessments and examinations as well as adequate habilitation.