• For original articles and case reports, authors and dates are cited in text (et al. for three or more authors), with full listing in alphabetical order at the end of the paper. For annotations, works are numbered in the references and these numbers are inserted in the text as superscripts..
  • Journal articles: All authors should be listed with initials, followed by the date, full title of the article, then abbreviated journal title in italics (go to for the Index Medicus list of recognised abbreviations), followed by volume number and page numbers..
  • Miller H. (1961) Accident neurosis. BMJ 5230: 91925.
  • Heydarian K, Akbarnia BA, Jabalameli M, Tabador K. (1984) Posterior capsulotomy fo the treatmeht of severe flexion con-tractures of the knee. J Pediatr Orthop 4: 7004.
  • If an article has only one page number, the nature of the publication should be stated in parentheses at the end of the reference:.
  • Smith AB, Jones CD, Bloggs EF. (1990) A developmental study of 3-year-old children in a London borough. Dev Med Child Neurol 33: 123. (Letter).
  • Book-chapter: All authors, followed by date, then chapter title, then editor/authors of book and book title, followed by city/state of publication and publisher's name, then page numbers:.
  • Smith AB. (1990) The development of 3-year-old children. In: JonesCD, BloggsEF, editors. Development of Children in Inner-city Boroughs. London : Mac Keith Press. p 2334.
  • Book - whole book: All authors/editors, followed by date, title of book, then city/state of publication and publisher's name. Page numbers are not necessary:.
  • Jones CD, Bloggs EF, editors. (1990) Development of Children in Inner-city Boroughs. London : Mac Keith Press.
  • Please note that the journal does not recognise abstracts or submitted (as opposed to accepted, or ‘Forthcoming’) papers as proper citations; where possible, cite only peer-reviewed, published material; submitted material should not be listed with the references but cited only in text, followed by ‘(personal communication)’.