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This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that children with autistic spectrum disorders often have macrocephalus, and that those without comorbid learning disability* are most frequently affected. Fifty consecutive children with Asperger syndrome (45 males, five females; mean age 9 years, range 1 year 6 months to 16 years) without indications of underlying medical disorders were matched for birth year and sex with 50 children (45 males, five females; mean age 6 years 4 months, range 1 year 4 months to 13 years 11 months) who met criteria for autistic disorder (a lower-functioning disorder within the autism spectrum) and with 50 children (45 males, five females; mean age 8 years 4 months, range 1 year 6 months to 15 years 5 months) who met criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Birth and neuropsychiatric follow-up records were examined and data relating to occipitofrontal circumference, weight, and height were detailed. The group with Asperger syndrome included a subset of individuals with macrocephalus recorded both at birth and at follow-up after the first year of life. Another subgroup developed macrocephalus during early childhood. Autistic spectrum disorders include a subgroup with macrocephalus characterized by a relatively high level of functioning and a clinical presentation most often consistent with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.