• 1
    American Psychiatric Association. (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., text revised. Washington , DC : American Psychiatric Association.
  • 2
    World Health Organization. (1992) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva : World Health Organization.
  • 3
    Fombonne E. (2003) Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. J Autism Dev Disord 33: 365382.
  • 4
    Lord C, Schopler E, Revicki D. (1982) Sex differences in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 12: 317330.
  • 5
    Tsai LY, Beisler JM. (1983) The development of sex differences in infantile autism. Br J Psychiatry 142: 373378.
  • 6
    Volkmar FR, Szatmari P, Sparrow SS. (1993) Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 23: 579591.
  • 7
    McLennan JD, Lord C, Schopler E. (1993) Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 23: 217227.
  • 8
    Rutter M, Le Couteur A, Lord C. (2003) Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles , CA : Western Psychological Services.
  • 9
    Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore P, Risi S. (2001) Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Los Angeles , CA : Western Psychological Services.
  • 10
    Achenbach TM. (1991) Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington , VT : University of Vermont.
  • 11
    Bölte S, Rühl D, Schmötzer G, Poustka F. (2006) Autismus -revidiert. Bern : Huber. (In German).
  • 12
    Rühl D, Bölte S, Feineis-Matthews S, Poustka F. (2004) Diagnostische Beobachtungsskala für Autistische Störungen (ADOS). Bern : Huber. (In German).
  • 13
    Arbeitsgruppe Deutsche Child Behavior Checklist. (1998) Elternfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen; deutsche Bearbeitung der Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/4–18). Einführung und Anleitung zur Handauswertung. 2nd edn. Köln : Arbeitsgruppe Kinder, Jugend-und Familiendiagnostik. (In German).
  • 14
    Wechsler D. (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised (WAIS-R). New York : The Psychological Corporation.
  • 15
    Wechsler D. (1991) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edn.). San Antonio , TX : The Psychological Corporation.
  • 16
    Raven JC. (1982) Revised Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scale. Windsor , UK : NFER Nelson.
  • 17
    Burgemeister BB, Blum LH, Lorge I. (1972) Columbia Mental Maturity Scale. 3rd edn. San Antonio , TX : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • 18
    Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL. (1983) Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Circle Pines , MN : American Guidance Service.
  • 19
    Sparrow S, Balla DA, Cichetti D. (1984) The Vineland A daptive Behaviour Scales - Interview Edition Survey Form Manual. Circle Pines , MN : American Guidance Service.
  • 20
    Poustka F, Lisch S, Rühl D, Sacher A, Schmötzer G, Werner K. (1996) The standardized diagnosis of autism: Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: interrater reliability of the German form of the interview. Psychopathology 29: 145153.
  • 21
    Bölte S, Poustka F. (2004) Diagnostische Beobachtungsskala für Autistische Störungen (ADOS): Erste Ergebnisse zur Zuverlässigkeit und Gültigkeit. (Diagnostic Observation Scale for Autistic Disorders: initial results of reliability and validity). Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 32: 4550. (In German).
  • 22
    Bölte S, Dickhut H, Poustka F. (1999) Patterns of parent-reported problems indicative in autism. Psychopathology 32: 9397.
  • 23
    Hessl D, Dyer-Friedman J, Glaser B, Wisbeck J, Barajas RG, Taylor A, Reiss AL. (2001) The influence of environmental and genetic factors on behavior problems and autistic symptoms in boys and girls with fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics 108: E88.
  • 24
    Englert E, Poustka F. (1995) The Frankfurt child and adolescent psychiatry documentation system: development and methodological principles with reference to quality assurance. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 44: 158167. (In German).
  • 25
    Cohen J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd edn. Hillsdale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • 26
    Howlin P, Goode S, Hutton J, Rutter M. (2004) Adult outcome for children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45: 212229.
  • 27
    Baron-Cohen S. (2002) The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends Cogn Sci 6: 248254.
  • 28
    Skuse DH. (2000) Imprinting, the X-chromosome, and the male brain: explaining sex differences in the liability to autism. Pediatr Res 47: 916.
  • 29
    Crick NR, Zahn-Waxler C. (2003) The development of psychopathology in females and males: current progress and future challenges. Dev Psychopathol 15: 719742.
  • 30
    Biederman J, Faraone S V, Doyle A, Lehman BK, Kraus I, Perrin J, Tsuang MT. (1993) Convergence of the Child Behavior Checklist with structured interview-based psychiatric diagnoses of ADHD children with and without comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 34: 12411251.
  • 31
    Nyden A, Hjelmquist E, Gillberg C. (2000) Autism spectrum and attention-deficit disorders in girls. Some neuropsychological aspects. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9: 180185.
  • 32
    Zwaigenbaum L, Szatmari P, Jones MB, Bryson SE, MacLean JE, Mahoney WJ, Bartolucci G, Tuff L. (2002) Pregnancy and birth complications in autism and liability to the broader autism phenotype. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41: 572579.
  • 33
    Lord C, Mulloy C, Wendelboe M, Schopler E. (1991) Pre- and perinatal factors in high-functioning females and males with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 21: 197209.