GLUT1 deficiency syndrome – 2007 update
Article first published online: 20 AUG 2007
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Volume 49, Issue 9, pages 707–716, September 2007
How to Cite
Klepper, J. and Leiendecker, B. (2007), GLUT1 deficiency syndrome – 2007 update. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49: 707–716. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00707.x
- Issue published online: 20 AUG 2007
- Article first published online: 20 AUG 2007
- Accepted for publication 21st June 2007.
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS, OMIM 606777) is a treatable epileptic encephalopathy resulting from impaired glucose transport into the brain. The essential biochemical finding is a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; hypoglycorrhachia; mean 1.7 [SD 0.3mmol/L]) in the setting of normoglycaemia. CSF lactate is normal. Patients present with an early-onset epilepsy resistant to anticonvulsants, developmental delay, and a complex movement disorder. Hypotonic, ataxic, and dystonic features are most prominent. Speech is often severely affected. Some patients develop spasticity and secondary microcephaly. The phenotype is highly variable ranging from severe impairment to children without seizures. Electroencephalography (EEG) may show 2.5-4Hz spike-waves improving on food intake. Neuroimaging is uninformative. Most patients carry heterozygous de novo mutations in the GLUT1 gene (OMIM 138140, gene map locus 1p35-31.3). Autosomal dominant transmission and several mutational hot spots have been identified, but phenotype-genotype correlations are not yet apparent. Homozygous GLUT1 mutations presumably are lethal. The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice as it provides an alternative fuel to the brain. It should be introduced early and maintained into puberty. Seizures are effectively controlled with the onset of ketosis, but might recur and require comedication. The effect on neurodevelopment appears less impressive. The increasing number of patients, molecular and biochemical analysis, recent research into ketogenic diet mechanisms, and the development of animal models for GLUT1DS have brought substantial insights in disease manifestations and mechanisms. This review summarizes data on 84 published cases and highlights recent advances in understanding this entity.