Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin in paediatric neurology: a marker of active central nervous system inflammation

Authors


  • Acknowledgements
    RCD and FB have funding from a University of Sydney postdoctoral fellowship, and the Brain Foundation (Australia). The authors thank Belinda Barton for statistical advice.

Dr Russell Dale at Clinical School, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Sydney NSW 2145, Australia. E-mail: russelld@chw.edu.au

Abstract

Aim  Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neopterin production is increased by interferon-gamma stimulation and appears to act as a marker of intrathecal immune activation. We aimed to test the usefulness of elevated CSF neopterin as a biological marker of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation.

Method  We retrospectively reviewed CSF neopterin in 158 children (89 males, 69 females, mean age 4y 1mo, SD 3y 11mo, range 1mo–15y).

Results  CSF neopterin levels in children with chronic static CNS disorders (n=105) were predominantly low, suggesting that inflammation is rare in these patients. We created an upper value of normal (chronic static group 95th centile 27.4nmol/l). CSF neopterin was elevated in all 10 patients with acute encephalitis and in 10 of 12 patients with other acute inflammatory CNS disorders (demyelination, post-infectious ataxia, myelitis). CSF neopterin was also significantly elevated in patients with chronic progressive disorders of inflammatory origin. Interestingly, CSF neopterin was elevated in four of six patients with chronic static disorders who were tested during a febrile exacerbation of seizures or dystonia, suggesting that intrathecal immune activation may be important in this setting.

Interpretation  Neopterin has a short half-life and was useful for monitoring inflammation activity in a patient with relapsing–remitting encephalitis. CSF neopterin is a useful marker of inflammation in a broad range of acute and chronic CNS disorders, and is a significantly more sensitive marker of inflammation than CSF pleocytosis.

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