Aim  To study the value and reliability of an examination of neurological soft-signs, often used in Sweden, in the assessment of children with attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by examining children with and without ADHD, as diagnosed by an experienced clinician using the DSM-III-R.

Method  We have examined interrater reliability (26 males, nine females; age range 5y 6mo–11y), internal consistency (94 males, 43 females; age range 5y 6mo–11y), test–retest reliability (12 males, eight females; age range 6–9y), and validity (79 males, 33 females; age range 5y 6mo–9y).

Results  The sum of the scores for the items on the examination had good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation [ICC] 0.95) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.76). The test–retest study also showed good reliability (ICC 0.91). There were modest associations between the examination and the assessment of motor function made by the physical education teacher (ICC 0.37) as well as from the parents’ description (ICC 0.39). The examination of neurological soft-signs had a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.76 in predicting motor problems as evaluated by the physical education teacher.

Interpretation  The reliability and validity of this examination seem to be good and can be recommended for clinical practice and research.