SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Liberson WT, Holmquest HJ, Scot II, Dow M. Functional electrotherapy: stimulation of the peroneal nerve synchronized with the swing phase of gait of hemiparetic patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1961; 42: 10105.
  • 2
    Waters RL, McNeal D, Perry J. Experimental correction of footdrop by electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1975; 57: 104754.
  • 3
    Granat MH, Maxwell DJ, Ferguson AC, Lees KR, Barbenel JC. Peroneal stimulator: evaluation for the correction of spastic foot drop in hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 1924.
  • 4
    Burridge JH, Taylor PN, Hagan SA, Wood DE, Swain ID. The effects of common peroneal nerve stimulation on the effort and speed of walking; a randomized controlled trial with chronic hemiplegic patients. Clin Rehabil 1997; 11: 20110.
  • 5
    Francisco G, Chae J, Chawla H, et al. Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation for improving the arm function of acute stroke survivors: a randomized pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 5705.
  • 6
    Chae J, Fang ZP, Walker M, Pourmehdi S. Intramuscular electromyographically controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation for upper limb recovery in chronic hemiplegia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 80: 93541.
  • 7
    Popovic DB, Popovic MB, Sinkjaer T, Stefanovic A, Schwirtlich L. Therapy of paretic arm in hemiplegic subjects augmented with a neural prosthesis: a cross-over study. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 82: 74956.
  • 8
    Turk R, Burrdige JH, Davis R, et al. Therapeutic effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the upper limb poststroke using implanted microstimulators. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008; 89: 191322.
  • 9
    Kralj A, Bajd T. Functional Electrical Stimulation: Standing and Walking After Spinal Cord Injury. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989.
  • 10
    Phillips CA. Functional Electrical Rehabilitation: Technical Restoration after Spinal Cord Injury. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
  • 11
    Granat MH, Ferguson AC, Andrews BJ, Delargy M. The role of functional electrical stimulation in the rehabilitation of patients with incomplete spinal cord injury--observed benefits during gait studies. Paraplegia 1993; 31: 20715.
  • 12
    Lieber RL. Skeletal muscle adaptability, III: muscle properties following chronic electrical stimulation. Dev Med Child Neurol 1986; 28: 66270.
  • 13
    Alfieri V. Electrical treatment of spasticity. Reflex tone activity in hemiplegic patients and selected specific electrostimulation. Scand J Rehabil Med 1982; 14: 17782.
  • 14
    Carmick J. Managing equinus in children with cerebral palsy: electrical stimulation to strengthen the spastic triceps surae muscle. Dev Med Child Neurol 1995; 37: 96575.
  • 15
    Scheker LR, Chesher SP, Ramirez S. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dynamic bracing as a treatment for upper-extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. J Hand Surg Br 1999; 24: 22632.
  • 16
    Wright PA, Granat MH. Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation of the upper limb of eight children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000; 42: 7247.
  • 17
    Merzenich MM, Nelson RJ, Stryker MP, Cynader MS, Schoppmann A, Zook JM. Somatosensory cortical map changes following digit amputation in adult monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1984; 224: 591605.
  • 18
    Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Reorganization of neocortical representations after brain injury: a neurophysiological model of the bases of recovery from stroke. Prog Brain Res 1987; 71: 24966.
  • 19
    Allard T, Clark SA, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Reorganization of somatosensory area 3b representations in adult owl monkeys after digital syndactyly. J Neurophysiol 1991; 66: 104858.
  • 20
    Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. Reorganization of cortical representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience. J Hand Ther 1993; 6: 89104.
  • 21
    Wang X, Merzenich MM, Sameshima K, Jenkins WM. Remodeling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature 1995; 378: 715.
  • 22
    Xerri C, Coq JO, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. Experience-induced plasticity of cutaneous maps in the primary somatosensory cortex of adult monkeys and rats. J Physiol Paris 1996; 90: 27787.
  • 23
    Xerri C, Merzenich MM, Peterson BE, Jenkins W. Plasticity of primary somatosensory cortex paralleling sensorimotor skill recovery from stroke in adult monkeys. J Neurophysiol 1998; 79: 211948.
  • 24
    Blake DT, Heiser MA, Caywood M, Merzenich MM. Experience-dependent adult cortical plasticity requires cognitive association between sensation and reward. Neuron 2006; 52: 37181.
  • 25
    SchmidtRA, LeeTD, editors. Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioural Emphasis, 3rd edn. Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1999: 26185.
  • 26
    Horak FB. Motor control models underlying neurologic rehabilitation of posture in children. In: Forssberg H, Horak FB, HirschfeldH, editors. Movement Disorders in Children (Medicine and Sport Science). Basel, Switzerland: S Karger AG, 1992: 2130.
  • 27
    Carr JH. Movement Science: Foundations for Physical Therapy In Rehabilitation. Rockville, MD: Aspen Publishers Inc, 1987.
  • 28
    De Kroon JR, Ijzerman MJ, Chae J, Lankhorst GJ, Zilvold G. Relation between stimulation characteristics and clinical outcome in studies using electrical stimulation to improve motor control of the upper extremity in stroke. J Rehabil Med 2005; 37: 6574.
  • 29
    Kerr C, McDowell B, McDonough S. Electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy: a review of the effects on strength and motor function. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004; 46: 20513.
  • 30
    Delitto A, Snyder-Mackler L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 1990; 70: 15864.
  • 31
    Reed B. The physiology of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Pediatr Phys Ther 1997; 9: 96102.
  • 32
    Pape KE. Therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) for the treatment of disuse muscle atrophy in cerebral palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther 1997; 9: 11012.
  • 33
    Haerer AF, Anderson DW, Schoenberg BS. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in the biracial population of Copiah County, Mississippi. Dev Med Child Neuro 1984; 26: 1959.
  • 34
    Evans P, Elliott M, Alberman E, Evans S. Prevalence and disabilities in 4- to 8- year-olds with cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child 1985; 60: 9405.
  • 35
    Murphy CC, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Decoufle P, Drews CD. Prevalence of cerebral palsy among ten-year-old children in metropolitan Atlanta, 1985 through 1987. J Pediatr 1993; 123: S1320.
  • 36
    Carmick J. Use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and [corrected] dorsal wrist splint to improve the hand function of a child with spastic hemiparesis. Phys Ther 1997; 77: 66171. Erratum in: Phys Ther 1997; 77: 859.
  • 37
    Ozer K, Chesher SP, Scheker LR. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dynamic bracing for the management of upper-extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48: 55963.
  • 38
    Kamper DG, Yasukawa AM, Barrett KM, Gaebler-Spira DJ. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment of cerebral palsy on potential impairment mechanisms: a pilot study. Pediatr Phys Ther 2006; 18: 318.
  • 39
    Barbosa AP, Vaz DV, Gontijo AP, Fonseca ST, Mancini MC. Therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation on manual function of children with cerebral palsy: evaluation of two cases. Disabil Rehabil 2008; 30: 7238.
  • 40
    Bertoli DB, Stanger M, Betz RR, Akers J, Maynahon M, Mulcahey MJ. Percutaneous intramuscular functional electrical stimulation as an intervention choice for children with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther 1997; 9: 1237.
  • 41
    Carmick J. Clinical use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for children with cerebral palsy, part 1: lower extremity. Phys Ther 1993; 73: 50513; discussion 523–7. Erratum in: Phys Ther 1993; 73: 809.
  • 42
    Dubowitz L, Finnie N, Hyde SA, Scott OM, Vrbova G. Improvement of muscle performance by chronic electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. Lancet 1988; 1: 5878.
  • 43
    Daichman J, Johnston TE, Evans K, Tecklin JS. The effects of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation home program on impairments and functional skills of a child with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a case report. Pediatr Phys Ther 2003; 15: 1538.
  • 44
    Van Der Linden ML, Hazlewood ME, Aitchison AM, Hillman SJ, Robb JE. Electrical stimulation of gluteus maximus in children with cerebral palsy: effects on gait characteristics and muscle strength. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003; 45: 38590.
  • 45
    Johnston TE, Finson RL, McCarthy JJ, Smith BT, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ. Use of functional electrical stimulation to augment traditional orthopaedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2004; 24: 28391.
  • 46
    Pierce SR, Orlin MN, Lauer RT, Johnston TE, Smith BT, McCarthy JJ. Comparison of percutaneous and surface functional electrical stimulation during gait in a child with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 83: 798805.
  • 47
    Chae J, Hart R. Comparison of discomfort associated with surface and percutaneous electrical stimulation for persons with chronic hemiplegia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 77: 51622.
  • 48
    Yu DT, Chae J, Walker ME, Hart RL, Petroski GF. Comparing stimulation-induced pain during percutaneous (intramuscular) and transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for treating shoulder subluxation in hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 75660.
  • 49
    Pierce SR, Laughton CA, Smith BT, Orlin MN, Johnston TE, McCarthy JJ. Direct effect of percutaneous electric stimulation during gait in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a report of 2 cases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 33943.
  • 50
    Orlin MN, Pierce SR, Stackhouse CL, et al. Immediate effect of percutaneous intramuscular stimulation during gait in children with cerebral palsy: a feasibility study. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005; 47: 68490.
  • 51
    Postans NJ, Granat MH. Effect of functional electrical stimulation, applied during walking, on gait in spastic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005; 47: 4652.
  • 52
    Ho CL, Holt KG, Saltzman E, Wagenaar RC. Functional electrical stimulation changes dynamic resources in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Phys Ther 2006; 86: 9871000.
  • 53
    Kerr C, McDowell B, Cosgrove A, Walsh D, Bradbury I, McDonough S. Electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006; 48: 8706.
  • 54
    Kang BS, Bang MS, Jung SH. Effects of botulism toxin A therapy with electrical stimulation on spastic calf muscles in children with cerebral palsy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2007; 86: 9016.
  • 55
    Simpson LL. Kinetic studies on the interaction between botulinum toxin type A and the cholinergic neuromuscular junction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1980; 212: 1621.
  • 56
    Stackhouse SK, Binder-Macleod SA, Stackhouse CA, McCarthy JJ, Prosser LA, Lee SC. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation versus volitional isometric strength training in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007; 21: 47585.
  • 57
    Katz A, Tirosh E, Marmur R, Mizrahi J. Enhancement of muscle activity by electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy: a case-control study. J Child Neurol 2008; 23: 25967.
  • 58
    Rose J, McGill KC. The motor unit in cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998; 40: 2707.
  • 59
    Van Der Linden ML, Hazlewood ME, Hillman SJ, Robb JE. Functional electrical stimulation to the dorsiflexors and quadriceps in children with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Phys Ther 2008; 20: 239.
  • 60
    Pape KE, Kirsch SE, Galil A, Boulton JE, White MA, Chipman M. Neuromuscular approach to the motor deficits of cerebral palsy: a pilot study. J Pediatr Orthop 1993; 13: 62833.
  • 61
    Steinbok P, Reiner A, Kestle JR. Therapeutic electrical stimulation following selective posterior rhizotomy in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997; 39: 51520.
  • 62
    Sommerfelt K, Markestad T, Berg K, Saetesdal I. Therapeutic electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 2001; 43: 60913.
  • 63
    Dali C, Hansen FJ, Pedersen SA, et al. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002; 44: 3649.
  • 64
    McNeal DR, Bowman BR. Peripheral nerve stimulation. In: Myklebust JB, CusickJF, LarsonSJ, SancesA, editors. Neural stimulation, Vol. 2. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985: 95118.
  • 65
    Pape KE, Kirsch SE, White MA, Chipman ML. Therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) in the rehabilitation of spastic hemiplegia. Clin Invest Med 1990; 13: B100.
  • 66
    Baker LL, Yeh C, Wilson D, Waters RL. Electrical stimulation of wrist and fingers for hemiplegic patients. Phys Ther 1979; 59: 14959.
  • 67
    Carmick J. Clinical use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for children with cerebral palsy, part 2: upper extremity. Phys Ther 1993; 73: 51422; discussion 523–27. Erratum in Phys Ther 1993; 73: 809.
  • 68
    Maenpaa H, Jaakkola R, Sandstrom M, Airi T, Von Wendt L. Electricostimulation at sensory level improves function of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Dev Med Child Neurol 2004; 46: 8490.
  • 69
    Rupp R, Gerner HJ. Neuroprosthetics of the upper extremity–clinical application in spinal cord injury and future perspectives. Biomed Tech (Berl) 2004; 49: 938.
  • 70
    Jiang G, Purnell K, Mobley JP, Schulman JH. Accelerated Life Tests and in-vivo Test of 3Y-TZP Ceramics. Presented at the Medical Devices Conference, September 8–10, 2003, Anaheim, CA, USA.
  • 71
    Jiang G, Mishler D, Davis R, Mobley JP, Schulman JH. Zirconia to Ti-6Al-4V braze joint for implantable biomedical device. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2004; 72: 31621.
  • 72
    Troyk PR, Schwan MA. Closed-loop class E transcutaneous power and data link for microimplants. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1992; 39: 58999.
  • 73
    Salter ACD, Bagg SD, Creasy JL, et al. First clinical experience with BION implants for therapeutic electrical stimulation. Neuromodulation 2004; 7: 3847.
  • 74
    Baker LL, Eberly V, Rakoski D, et al. Preliminary experience with implanted microstimulators for management of post-stroke impairments. J Neurol Phys Ther 2006; 30: 20922.
  • 75
    Baker LL, Palmer E, Waters RL, Chun SN. Rehabilitation of the Arm and Hand Following Stroke – a Clinical Trial with Bions. Presented at the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, September 1–5, 2004, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • 76
    Shimada Y, Davis R, Matsunaga T, et al. Electrical stimulation using implantable radiofrequency microstimulators to relieve pain associated with shoulder subluxation in chronic hemiplegic stroke. Neuromodulation 2006; 9: 2348.
  • 77
    Mann GE, Burridge JH, Malone LJ, Strike PW. A pilot study to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation on hand function and sensation in stroke. Neuromodulation 2005; 8: 193202.