Asterisks (*) indicate a study included in the review (10 studies).

  • 1
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • 2
    Turner MA. Annotation: repetitive behaviour in autism: a review of psychological research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999; 40: 83949.
  • 3
    Rapp JT, Vollmer TR. Stereotypy I: a review of behavioral assessment and treatment. Res Dev Disabl 2005; 26: 52747.
  • 4
    Cunningham AB, Schriebman L. Stereotypy in autism: the importance of function. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2008; 2: 46979.
  • 5
    *Conroy MA, Asmus JM, Sellers JA, Ladwig CN. The use of an antecedent-based intervention to decrease stereotypic behavior in a general education classroom: a case study. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabl 2005; 20: 22330.
  • 6
    Lewis MH, Bodfish JW. Repetitive behavior disorders in autism. Ment Retard Dev Disabil 1998; 4: 809.
  • 7
    Happe F, Ronald R, Plomin R. Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nat Neurosci 2006; 9: 121820.
  • 8
    Watt N, Wetherby AM, Barber A, Morgan L. Repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. J Autism Dev Disord 2008; 38: 151833.
  • 9
    Hollander E, Phillips A, Chaplin W, et al. A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 5829.
  • 10
    Militerni R, Bravaccio C, Falco C, Fico C, Palermo MT. Repetitive behaviors in autistic disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 11: 2108.
  • 11
    Szatmari P, Georgiades S, Bryson S, et al. Investigating the structure of the restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests domain of autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006; 47: 58290.
  • 12
    Lord C, Pickles A. Language level and non-verbal social-communicative behaviors in autistic and language-delayed children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 35: 154250.
  • 13
    Lewis M, Kim SJ. The pathophysiology of restricted repetitive behavior. J Neurodevelop Disord 2009; 1: 11432.
  • 14
    National Research Council. Educating Children with Autism. LordC, McGeeJP, editors. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
  • 15
    Hutt C, Hutt SJ. Effects of environmental complexity on stereo-typed behaviors of children. Anim Behav 1965; 13: 14.
  • 16
    Zentall SS, Zentall TR. Optimal stimulation: a model of disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children. Psychol Bull 1983; 94: 44671.
  • 17
    Wacker DP, Peck S, Derby KM, Berg W, Harding J. Developing long-tern reciprocal interactions between parents and their young children with problematic behaviour. In: KoegelLK, KoegelRL, DunlapG, editors. Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing, 2006, 5180.
  • 18
    Murdoch H. Stereotyped behaviours: how should we think about them? Br J Special Educ 2003; 24: 715.
  • 19
    Bodfish JW, Symons FJ, Parker DE, Lewis MH. Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: comparisons to mental retardation. J Autism Dev Disord 2000; 30: 23743.
  • 20
    Goin-Kochel RP, Mackintosh VH, Myers BJ. Parental reports on the efficacy of treatments and therapies for their children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2009; 3: 52837.
  • 21
    Lord C, Wagner A, Rogers S, et al. Challenges in evaluating psychosocial interventions for autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2005; 35: 695708.
  • 22
    Lavis J, Davis H, Oxman A, Denis JL, Golden-Biddle K, Ferlie E. Towards systematic reviews that inform health care management and policy-making. J Health Serv Res Policy 2005; 10: 3548.
  • 23
    Reichow B, Volkmar FR, Cicchetti DV. Development of the evaluative method for evaluating and determining evidence-based practices in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2008; 38: 13119.
  • 24
    Logan LR, Hickman RR, Haris SR, Heriza CB. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating. Dev Med Child Neurol 2008; 50: 99103.
  • 25
    Soorya L, Kiarashi J, Hollander E. Psychopharmacologic interventions for repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 2008; 17: 75371.
  • 26
    Smith T, Scahill L, Dawson G, et al. Designing research studies on psychosocial interventions in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2007; 37: 35466.
  • 27
    Fisher WW, Lindauer SE, Alterson CJ, Thompson RH. Assessment and treatment of destructive behavior maintained by stereotypic object manipulation. J Appl Behav Anal 1998; 31: 51327.
  • 28
    Arntzen E, Tonnessen IR, Brouwer G. Reducing aberrant verbal behavior by building a repertoire of rational verbal behavior. Behav Intervent 2006; 21: 17793.
  • 29
    Orr TJ, Myles BM, Carlson JK. The impact of rhythmic entertainment on a person with autism. Focus Autism Dev Disabil 1998; 13: 1636.
  • 30
    Fertel-Daly D, Bedell G, Hinojosa J. Effects of a weighted vest on attention to task and self-stimulatory behaviors in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Occup Ther 2001; 55: 62940.
  • 31
    Smith SA, Press B, Koenig KP, Kinnealey M. Effects of sensory integration intervention on self-stimulating and self-injurious behaviors. Am J Occup Ther 2005; 59: 41825.
  • 32
    The Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Version 5.0.1). HigginsJPT, GreenS, editors. Available from: (accessed 19 June 2009).
  • 33
    *Cicero FR. The effects of noncontingent reinforcement and response interruption on stereotypic behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement [dissertation]. New York: City University of New York, 2007.
  • 34
    *Britton LN, Carr JE, Landaburu HJ, Romick KS. The efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement as treatment for automatically reinforced stereotypy. Behav Interv 2002; 17: 93103.
  • 35
    *Roane HS, Kelly ML, Fisher WW. The effects of noncontingent access to food on the rate of object mouthing across three settings. J Appl Behav Anal 2003; 36: 57982.
  • 36
    *Rapp JT. Further evaluation of methods to identify matched stimulation. J Appl Behav Anal 2007; 40: 7388.
  • 37
    *Rehfeldt RA, Chambers MR. Functional analysis and treatment of verbal perseverations displayed by an adult with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2003; 36: 25961.
  • 38
    *Carr JE, Dozier CL, Patel MR, Adams AN, Martin N. Treatment of automatically reinforced object mouthing with noncontingent reinforcement and response blocking: experimental analysis and social validation. Res Dev Disabil 2002; 23: 3744.
  • 39
    Turner MA. Towards an executive dysfunction account of repetitive behaviour in autism. In: RussellJ, editor. Autism as an Executive Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 57100.
  • 40
    Kennedy CH, Meyer KA, Knowles T, Shukla S. Analyzing the multiple functions of stereotypical behavior for students with autism: implications for assessment and treatment. J Appl Behav Anal 2000; 33: 55971.
  • 41
    *Tarbox J, Wallace MD, Tarbox RSF. Successful generalized parent training and failed schedule thinning of response blocking for automatically maintained object mouthing. Behav Interv 2002; 17: 16978.
  • 42
    Ahearn WH, Clark KM, MacDonald RPF. Assessing and treating vocal stereotypy in children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2007; 40: 26375.
  • 43
    Scruggs TE, Mastropieri MA, Casto G. The quantitative synthesis of single-subject research: methodology and validation. Remedial and Special Education 1987; 8: 2433.
  • 44
    Scruggs TE, Mastropieri MA. Summarizing single-subject research: issues and applications. Behav Modif 1998; 22: 22142.
  • 45
    Maston ML, Mahan S, Matson JL. Parent training: a review of methods for children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2009; 3: 86875.
  • 46
    Simpson RL, Smith Myles B, Griswold DE, Adams LG, De Boer-Ott SR, Kline SA. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Interventions and Treatments for Children and Youth. Austin: Corwin Press, 2004.
  • 47
    American Speech Language Hearing Association. Introduction to evidence-based practice. Available from: (accessed 15 September 2006).
  • 48
    Freeman BJ. Guidelines for evaluating intervention programs for children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1997; 27: 64151.
  • 49
    Horner R, Carr E, Halle J, McGee G, Odom S, Wolery M. The use of single subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children 2005; 71: 16579.
  • 50
    Odom SL, Brown WH, Frey T, Karasu N, Smith-Carter LL, Strain P. Evidence-based practices for young children with autism: contributions for single-subject design research. Focus Autism Dev Disabil 2003; 18: 16675.
  • 51
    Silva LM, Cignolini A. A medical qigong methodology for early intervention in autism spectrum disorder: a case series. Am J Chin Med 2005; 33: 31527.
  • 52
    Smith T, Wick J. Controversial treatments. In: ChawarskaK, KlinA, VolkmarFR, editors. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Infants and Toddlers: Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 2008, 24373.