Aim The morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in children and adolescents with spina bifida highlights the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and pattern of bone fractures in paediatric patients with spina bifida.
Method We reviewed the data of all paediatric patients with spina bifida who were treated in our centre between 1999 and 2008.
Results One hundred and thirteen patients were included in the study (63 females, 50 males; mean age 10y 8mo, SD 4y 10mo, range 6mo–18y). The motor levels were thoracic in six, upper lumbar in 22, lower lumbar in 42, and sacral in 43 patients. Of the 113 patients, 58 (51.3%) had shunted hydrocephalus. Thirty-six (31.8%) were non-ambulatory (wheelchair–dependent [unable to self-propel wheelchair] n=3, wheelchair-independent [able to self-propel wheelchair] n=33), 13 were partial ambulators, 61 were full ambulators, and three were below the age of walking. Forty-five fractures were reported in 25 patients. The distal femur was the most common fracture site. Statistical analyses showed that patients with higher levels of involvement and in wheelchairs had a significantly increased risk of having a second fracture (p<0.001). Spontaneous fractures were the principal mechanism of injury, and an association was identified between fracture mechanism, type of ambulation, and lesion level: the fractures of patients with higher levels of motor functioning and those in wheelchairs were mainly pathological (p=0.01). We identified an association between risk of a second fracture, higher motor level lesion, and non-ambulation. There was an increased risk of having a second fracture after a previous spontaneous fracture (p=0.004).
Interpretation Data in this study indicate a high prevalence of fractures in patients with spina bifida.