Standardized tests of handwriting readiness: a systematic review of the literature

Authors

  • MARGO J VAN HARTINGSVELDT,

    1.  Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    2.  Department of Rehabilitation, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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  • IMELDA J M DE GROOT,

    1.  Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    2.  Department of Rehabilitation, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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  • PAULINE B M AARTS,

    1.  Department of Research, Development and Education, Sint Maartenskliniek Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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  • MARIA W G NIJHUIS-VAN DER SANDEN

    1.  Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    2.  Scientific Institute for Quality of Health Care, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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Margo J van Hartingsveldt at Department of Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy 898, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: m.vanhartingsveldt@reval.umcn.nl

Abstract

Aim  To establish if there are psychometrically sound standardized tests or test items to assess handwriting readiness in 5- and 6-year-old children on the levels of occupations activities/tasks and performance.

Method  Electronic databases were searched to identify measurement instruments. Tests were included in a systematic review if: (1) participants are 5 and 6 years old, (2) the focus was on handwriting readiness, and (3) the measurement was standardized. In the second step a further electronic search was undertaken for selected relevant measurement instruments to evaluate the content, psychometric properties, and feasibility of these instruments.

Results  The search identified 1113 citations. In the final selection 39 articles with information about 12 tests were included. The content, feasibility, and psychometric properties of these 12 tests were evaluated and none of the instruments was satisfactory, according to the specific criteria.

Interpretation  None of the instruments include all necessary components to evaluate writing readiness. Therefore, the development of an all encompassing assessment is necessary to test handwriting readiness and to make tailored interventions possible.

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