Cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes of movement disorders in children: a systematic review
Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011
© The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
Volume 53, Issue 12, pages 1077–1084, December 2011
How to Cite
BEN-PAZI, H., JAWOROWSKI, S. and SHALEV, R. S. (2011), Cognitive and psychiatric phenotypes of movement disorders in children: a systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 53: 1077–1084. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04134.x
- Issue published online: 16 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011
- PUBLICATION DATA Accepted for publication 28th July 2011. Published online 27th September 2011.
Aim The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication effects.
Method The goal of this review is to outline the known cognitive and psychiatric symptoms associated with paediatric movement disorders. We used a systematic approach, via PubMed, and reviewed over 400 abstracts of studies of selected disorders, of which 88 papers reporting paediatric non-motor symptoms are summarized.
Results Obsessive–compulsive disorder was manifest in children with paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and Sydenham chorea. Children with opsoclonus–myoclonus syndrome had, for the most part, cognitive and behavioural problems, and attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder was reported as a major comorbidity in Tourette syndrome, stereotypies, and restless legs syndrome. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were more frequent in individuals with idiopathic dystonia. Affective disorders were suggestive of Wilson disease. Cognitive decline was common in children with juvenile Huntington disease. A limitation of this review was the lack of systematic assessment in paediatric movement disorders for evaluation and uniform definitions.
Interpretation Although the literature in non-motor phenomena is still emerging, recognition of salient cognitive and psychiatric phenomena may facilitate management of paediatric movement disorders.