• Nap effects on performance;
  • Effects of naps during sleep loss;
  • Sleep deprivation and nap effects;
  • Continuous performance and naps


Subjects performed on a battery of tests for 3 days and nights with minimal or no sleep. Three nap schedules were investigated: 2 hrs from 0800-1000 following Nights 1 and 2 (morning naps); 2 hrs from 2200–2400 prior to Nights 2 and 3 (evening naps): 4 hrs from 2000–2400 prior to Night 2. There was n no-nap control group. Measures from a 30-min addition task and subjective measures of sleepiness were analyzed. The measures used were from approximately 2 hrs before and 2 hrs after the experimental conditions. The data show an ameliorative proximal effect of naps through at least the second night.