This article is based on a doctoral dissertation submitted to McMaster University by R.J. Williams. L.E. Roberts was thesis supervisor. The research was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
Relation of Learned Heart Rate Control to Self-Report in Different Task Environments
Article first published online: 30 JAN 2007
Volume 25, Issue 3, pages 354–365, May 1988
How to Cite
Williams, R. J. and Roberts, L. E. (1988), Relation of Learned Heart Rate Control to Self-Report in Different Task Environments. Psychophysiology, 25: 354–365. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1988.tb01254.x
- Issue published online: 30 JAN 2007
- Article first published online: 30 JAN 2007
- (Manuscript received June 25, 1987; accepted for publication December 14, 1987)
- Biofeedback learning;
- Response awareness;
- Verbal reports;
- Motor learning;
- Problem solving
A widely-expressed view based on early studies of the verbal report in biofeedback holds that response awareness is unnecessary for learned control of visceral responding. However, more recent evidence has questioned this view. This article reports two experiments that analyzed verbal reports with the methods of recent studies while examining procedural differences between early and recent research. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of bidirectional versus unidirectional training on heart rate control and self-report. Experiment 2 examined heart rate control and self-report in two task environments that differed with regard to whether somatomotor action was afforded or allowed. No instances of response learning without response awareness were observed in either experiment, even when task environments approximating those of the early biofeedback studies were used. The results support viewpoints of biofeedback that assign a role to response awareness in the development of instructed control.