This work was supported in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Mental Health, Grant Number MH-22149, to E. Callaway, by funds provided by the Cigarette and Tobacco Surtax Fund of the State of California through the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California. Grant Number 1RT144, to R. Halliday, and by a grant awarded by the Biomedical Research Support Grant Program Division of Research Resources National Institutes of Health, Grant Number BRSG #507-RR05755, to R. Halliday.
The effect of D-amphetamine, clonidine, and yohimbine on human information processing
Article first published online: 30 JAN 2007
Volume 31, Issue 4, pages 331–337, July 1994
How to Cite
HALLIDAY, R., NAYLOR, H., BRANDEIS, D., CALLAWAY, E., YANO, L. and HERZIG, K. (1994), The effect of D-amphetamine, clonidine, and yohimbine on human information processing. Psychophysiology, 31: 331–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb02441.x
We acknowledge the assistance of Jacques Le Houezee, Kevin Takakuwa, David Servan-Sehreiber, and Jonathan Cohen. Portions of these findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, PR, December 9–13, 1991, and the 29th annual meeting of the Society of Psychophysiological Research, New Orleans, I A, October 18–22, 1989. Some of the findings were summarized by Callaway, Halliday, Naylor, and Brandels (1991).
- Issue published online: 30 JAN 2007
- Article first published online: 30 JAN 2007
- (Received July 13, 1992; Accepted July 26, 1993)
- Reaction time;
- P3 and N1 latency;
- Information processing
Twelve subjects were tested with D-amphetamine, yohimbine, clonidine, and a placebo on a task with two levels of stimulus and two levels of response complexity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that noradrenergic durgs affect early stimulus processes. D-amphetamine speeded reaction time (RT), clonidine slowed it, and yohimbine had no effect. D-amphetamine and yohimbine decreased N1 latency and clonidine increased it. D-amphetamine and yohimbine decreased P3 latency and clonidine increased it but, in each case, only when latency estimates were based on single trials, not on averages. D-amphetamine's effect on RT, not P3, as measured by the average, is consistent with previous results. Single trial measures appear more sensitive. Speeding of N1 and single-trial P3 data indicate that noradrenergic durgs affect processing of early (visual) information. D-amphetamine's speeding of single-trial P3 estimates was attributed to its noradrenergic actions. Yohimbine's speeding of P3 without changing RT is consistent with neural net (parallel) simulations but not with a serial model. These findings support the assumption that different neurotransmitters modulate specific cognitive processes.