Fine-tuning of auditory cortex during speech production

Authors

  • Theda H. Heinks-Maldonado,

    1. Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    2. Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA
    3. Department of Neuropsychology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany
    4. Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
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  • Daniel H. Mathalon,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    2. Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs West Haven Health Care System, West Haven, Connecticut, USA
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  • Max Gray,

    1. Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    2. Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA
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  • Judith M. Ford

    1. Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    2. Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA
    3. Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    4. Psychiatry Service, Veterans Affairs West Haven Health Care System, West Haven, Connecticut, USA
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  • This research was supported by NIH grant MH 58262 and MH067967, NARSAD, the Department of Veterans Affairs and the German National Merit Foundation. We thank J. Houde, S. Nagarajan, W. Roth, A. Maldonado, and U. Halsband for their advice and assistance.

Address reprint requests to: Judith M. Ford, Ph.D., Psychiatry Service 116A, VA Healthcare System, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT 06516, USA. E-mail: judith.ford@yale.edu.

Abstract

The cortex suppresses sensory information when it is the result of a self-produced motor act, including the motor act of speaking. The specificity of the auditory cortical suppression to self-produced speech, a prediction derived from the posited operation of a precise forward model system, has not been established. We examined the auditory N100 component of the event-related brain potential elicited during speech production. While subjects uttered a vowel, they heard real-time feedback of their unaltered voice, their pitch-shifted voice, or an alien voice substituted for their own. The subjects' own unaltered voice feedback elicited a dampened auditory N100 response relative to the N100 elicited by altered or alien auditory feedback. This is consistent with the operation of a precise forward model modulating the auditory cortical response to self-generated speech and allowing immediate distinction of self and externally generated auditory stimuli.

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