The first author thanks the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research for financial support for this research. This research was supported in part by National Sciences and Engineering Research Council Discovery Grant 312409-05.
Predictive information and error processing: The role of medial-frontal cortex during motor control
Version of Record online: 16 APR 2007
Volume 44, Issue 4, pages 586–595, July 2007
How to Cite
Krigolson, O. E. and Holroyd, C. B. (2007), Predictive information and error processing: The role of medial-frontal cortex during motor control. Psychophysiology, 44: 586–595. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00523.x
Supplemental material is available at: http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/braincoglab/lab_research.html
- Issue online: 16 APR 2007
- Version of Record online: 16 APR 2007
- (Received August 29, 2006; Accepted February 16, 2007)
- Error processing;
- Forward model;
- Reinforcement learning
We have recently provided evidence that an error-related negativity (ERN), an ERP component generated within medial-frontal cortex, is elicited by errors made during the performance of a continuous tracking task (O.E. Krigolson & C.B. Holroyd, 2006). In the present study we conducted two experiments to investigate the ability of the medial-frontal error system to evaluate predictive error information. In two experiments participants used a joystick to perform a computer-based continuous tracking task in which some tracking errors were inevitable. In both experiments, half of these errors were preceded by a predictive cue. The results of both experiments indicated that an ERN-like waveform was elicited by tracking errors. Furthermore, in both experiments the predicted error waveforms had an earlier peak latency than the unpredicted error waveforms. These results demonstrate that the medial-frontal error system can evaluate predictive error information.