Polysomnographically measured sleep abnormalities in PTSD: A meta-analytic review

Authors


  • Preparation of this article was supported by NIMH grants R34 MH71201 and R34 MH 73014.

Address reprint requests to: Ihori Kobayashi, P.O. Box 5190, Department of Psychology, Kent, OH 44242, USA. E-mail: ikobayas@kent.edu

Abstract

Although sleep complaints are common among patients with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), polysomnographic studies examining sleep abnormalities in PTSD have produced inconsistent results. To clarify discrepant findings, we conducted a meta-analytic review of 20 polysomnographic studies comparing sleep in people with and without PTSD. Results showed that PTSD patients had more stage 1 sleep, less slow wave sleep, and greater rapid-eye-movement density compared to people without PTSD. We also conducted exploratory analyses aimed at examining potential moderating variables (age, sex, and comorbid depression and substance use disorders). Overall, studies with a greater proportion of male participants or a low rate of comorbid depression tended to find more PTSD-related sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that sleep abnormalities exist in PTSD, and that some of the inconsistencies in prior findings may be explained by moderating variables.

Ancillary