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Novelty P3 reductions in depression: Characterization using principal components analysis (PCA) of current source density (CSD) waveforms

Authors

  • Craig E. Tenke,

    1. Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
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  • Jürgen Kayser,

    1. Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
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  • Jonathan W. Stewart,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    2. Depression Evaluation Service, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
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  • Gerard E. Bruder

    1. Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA
    2. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
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  • This work was supported in part by Grants MH36295 and MH66597 from the National Institute of Mental Health. The authors are grateful for the assistance of Christopher J. Kroppmann, Nathan A. Gates, and Jennifer D. Schaller in collecting and processing the data. We also acknowledge the waveform plotting software written by Charles L. Brown, III. Finally, we appreciate the suggestions of two anonymous reviewers, which greatly improved this article.

Address reprint requests to: Jürgen Kayser, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Unit 50, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. E-mail: kayserj@pi.cpmc.columbia.edu

Abstract

We previously reported a novelty P3 reduction in depressed patients compared to healthy controls (n=20 per group) in a novelty oddball task using a 31-channel montage. In an independent replication and extension using a 67-channel montage (n=49 per group), reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms were simplified and quantified by a temporal, covariance-based principal components analysis (PCA) (unrestricted Varimax rotation), yielding factor solutions consistent with other oddball tasks. A factor with a loadings peak at 343 ms summarized the target P3b source as well as a secondary midline frontocentral source for novels and targets. An earlier novelty vertex source (NVS) at 241 ms was present for novels, but not targets, and was reduced in patients. Compatible CSD-PCA findings were also confirmed for the original low-density sample. Results are consistent with a reduced novelty response in clinical depression, involving the early phase of the frontocentral novelty P3.

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