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Simplifying jackknifing of ERPs and getting more out of it: Retrieving estimates of participants' latencies


  • This work was prepared while the author was a visiting researcher at the Department of Psychology of the University of Otago. I thank Jeff Miller, Peter Ruitenbeek, and Saul Sternberg for their comments on a previous version.

Address reprint requests to: Fren Smulders, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht, 6200 MD, The Netherlands. E-mail:


Research has demonstrated that the jackknifing procedure for estimating ERP latencies (J. Miller, T. Patterson, & R. Ulrich, 1998) yields more accurate estimates of differences between experimental conditions in ERP latency than other methods. However, the scores resulting from this procedure require special adjustments for further analyses and do not directly reflect each participant's latency. Here, a simple transform is proposed that retrieves estimates of each participant's latency from the subaverage scores, rendering further adjustments superfluous. Other advantages of working with participants' latencies are discussed. Results of simulations support the validity of jackknifing and the retrieval transform.

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