Influenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: a clinical and seroepidemiological study


Correspondence: Dr W. L. Irving, Department of Microbiology, University Hospital, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.


Objective To determine whether maternal influenza virus infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy results in transplacental transmission of infection, maternal auto-antibody production or an increase in complications of pregnancy.

Design Case-control cohort study.

Population Study and control cohorts were derived from 3975 women who were consecutively delivered at two Nottingham teaching hospitals between May 1993 and July 1994. A complete set of three sera was available for 1659 women.

Methods Paired maternal ante- and postnatal sera were screened for a rise in anti-influenza virus antibody titre by single radial haemolysis and haemagglutination inhibition. Routine obstetric data collected during and after pregnancy were retrieved from the Nottingham obstetric database. Cord samples were tested for the presence of IgM anti-influenza antibodies, and postnatal infant sera were tested for the persistence of influenza-virus specific IgG. Paired antenatal and postnatal sera were tested against a standard range of auto-antigens by immunofluorescence.

Main outcome measures Classification of women as having definite serological evidence of an influenza virus infection in pregnancy (cases) or as controls.

Results Intercurrent influenza virus infections were identified in 182/1659 (11.0%) pregnancies. None of 138 cord sera from maternal influenza cases was positive for influenza A virus specific IgM. IgG anti-influenza antibodies did not persist in any of 12 infant sera taken at age 6–12 months. Six of 172 postnatal maternal sera from cases of influenza were positive for auto-antibodies. In all cases the corresponding antenatal serum was also positive for the same auto-antibody. There were no significant differences in pregnancy outcome measures between cases and controls. Overall, there were significantly more complications of pregnancy in the cases versus the controls, but no single type of complication achieved statistical significance.

Influenza infection in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is a relatively common event. We found no evidence for transplacental transmission of influenza virus or auto-antibody production in pregnancies complicated by influenza infections. There was an increase in the complications of pregnancy in our influenza cohort.