• 1
    Coffey VP, Jessop WJE. Maternal influenza and congenital deformities: a prospective study. Lancet 1959; 2: 935.
  • 2
    Aro T, Haapakoski J, Heinonen OP. A multivariate analysis of the risk indicators of reduction limb defects. Int J Epidemiol 1984; 13: 459464.
  • 3
    Hardy JMB, Azarowicz EN, Mannini A, Medearis DN, Cooke RE. The effect of Asian influenza on the outcome of pregnancy, Baltimore, 1957–1958. Am J Public Health 1961; 51: 11821188.
  • 4
    Griffith GW, Adelstein AM, Lambert PM, Weatherall JAC. Influenza and infant mortality. BMJ 1972; iii: 553556.
  • 5
    Hakulinen T, Hovi L, Karkinen-Jaaskelainen M, Penttinen K, Saxen L. Association between influenza during pregnancy and childhood leukaemia. BMJ 1972; iv: 6314.
  • 6
    Mattock C, Marmot M, Stern G. Could Parkinson's disease follow intrauterine influenza?: a speculative hypothesis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1988; 51: 753756.
  • 7
    Mednick SA, Machon RA, Huttenen MO, Bonet D. Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza epidemic. Arch Gen Psych 1988; 45: 189192.
  • 8
    Sham PC, O'Callaghan E, Takei N, Murray GK, Hare EH, Murray RM. Schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to influenza epidemics between 1939 and 1960. Br J Psych 1992; 160: 461466.
  • 9
    Rushton DI, Collie MH, Sweet C et al. The effects of maternal influenzal viraemia in late gestation on the conceptus of the pregnant ferret. J Pathol 1983; 140: 181191.
  • 10
    Schild GC, Pereira M, Chakraverty P. Single radial haemolysis: a new method for the assay of antibody to influenza haemagglutinins. Bull WHO 1975; 52: 4350.
  • 11
    Chakraverty P. Comparison of haemagglutination inhibition and single radial haemolysis techniques for the detection of antibodies to influenza B virus. Arch Virol 1980; 63: 285289.
  • 12
    Buchner Y, Heath RB, Collins JV, Pattison JR. Detection of antibodies of the IgM class in sera of patients recently infected with influenza viruses. J Clin Path 1976; 29: 423427.
  • 13
    Buchner Y, Heath RB, Collins JV, Pattison JR. Serum IgM antibody and influenza A infection. J Clin Path 1977; 30: 723727.
  • 14
    Griffiths PD, Ronalds CJ, Heath RB. A prospective study of influenza infections during pregnancy. J Epidemiol Community Health 1980; 34: 124128.
  • 15
    Deadman DJ, Joseph CA, Chakraverty P, Fleming DM, Watson JM. Influenza surveillance, England and Wales: October 1992 to June 1993. Communicable Disease Review 1994; 3: R184R186.
  • 16
    Deadman DJ, Joseph CA, Chakraverty P, Fleming DM, Watson JM. Influenza surveillance, England and Wales: October 1993 to June 1994. Communicable Disease Review 1994; 4: R164R168.
  • 17
    Stanwell-Smith R, Parker AM, Chakraverty P, Soltanpoor N, Simpson CN. Possible association of influenza A with fetal loss: investigation of a cluster of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Communicable Disease Review 1994; 4: R28R32.
  • 18
    Yawn DH, Pyeatte JC, Joseph JM, Eichler SL, Garcia-Bunvel R. Transplacental transfer of influenza virus. JAMA 1971; 216: 1022.
  • 19
    McGregor JA, Burns JC, Levin MJ, Burlington B, Meiklejohn G. Transplacental passage of influenza A/Bangkok (H3 N2) mimicking amniotic fluid infection syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 149: 856859.
  • 20
    Ruben FL, Thompson DS. Cord blood lymphocyte in vitro responses to influenza A antigens after an epidemic of influenza A/Port Chalmer/73 (H3 N2). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981; 141: 443447.
  • 21
    Conover PT, Roessmann U. Malformational complex in an infant with intrauterine influenza viral infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1990; 114: 535558.
  • 22
    Goldwater PN, Webster M, Banatvala JE. Use of a simple new test for virus-specific IgM to investigate an outbreak of influenza B in a hospitalised/aged community. J Virol Methods 1982; 4: 918.
  • 23
    Rimmelzwaan GF, Baars M, van Beek R et al. Induction of protective immunity against influenza virus in a macaque model: comparison of conventional and ISCOM vaccines. J Gen Virol 1997; 78: 757765.
  • 24
    Griffiths PD, Berney SI, Argent S, Heath RB. Antibody against viruses in maternal and cord sera: specific antibody is concentrated on the fetal side of the circulation. Journal of Hygiene 1982; 89: 303310.
  • 25
    Laing P, Knight JG, Hill JM et al. Influenza viruses induce autoantibodies to a 37 kDa brainspecific protein in rabbit. PNAS 1989; 86: 19982002.
  • 26
    Colaco CB, Mackie IJ, Irving WL, Machin S. Anticardiolipin antibodies in viral infection. Lancet 1989; i: 622.
  • 27
    Adinolphi M, Beck SE, Haddad SH, Seller MJ. Permeability of bloodcerebrospinal fluid barrier to plasma proteins during fetal and perinatal life. Nature 1976; 259: 140141.