• 1
    Hall MH, Danielian P, Lamont RF. The importance of preterm birth. In: ElderMG, LamontRF, RomeroR, editors. Preterm Labor. New York : Churchill Livingstone, 1997: 128.
  • 2
    King JF, Grant A, Keirse MJNC, Chalmers I. Beta-mimetics in preterm labour: an overview of randomised controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 95: 211222.
  • 3
    Canadian Preterm Labour Investigators Group. Treatment of preterm labour with the beta-adrenergic agonist ritrodrine. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 308312.
  • 4
    Besinger RE, Iannucci TA. Tocolytic Therapy. In: ElderMG, LamontRF, RomeroR, editors. Preterm Labor. New York : Churchill Livingstone, 1997: 243297.
  • 5
    Goodwin TM, Valenzuela GJ, Silver H, Hayashi R, Creasy GW, Lane R. Treatment of preterm labor with the oxytocic antagonist atosiban. Am J Perinatol 1996; 13: 143146.
  • 6
    Goodwin TM, Valenzuela GJ, Silver H, Creasy GW. Dose ranging study of the oxytocin antagonist atosiban in the treatment of preterm labor. Atosiban Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88: 331336.
  • 7
    Bennett PR, Slater DM, Sullivan M, Elder MG, Moore GE. Changes in amniotic arachidonic acid metabolism associated with increased cyclo-oxygenase gene expression. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1993; 100: 10371042.
  • 8
    Slater DM, Berger LC, Newton R, Moore GE, Bennett PR. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase type 1 and 2 in human fetal membranes at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172: 7782.
  • 9
    Carlan SJ, O'Brien WF, O'Leary TD, Mastrogiannis D. Randomised comparative trial of indomethacin and sulindac for the treatment of refractile preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79: 223228.
  • 10
    Starling EH. On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces. J Physiol 1896; 19: 312326.
  • 11
    Lee W, Cotton DB. Cardiorespiratory changes in pregnancy. In: ClarkSL, CottonDB, HankinsGDV, PhelanJP, editors. Critical Care Obstetrics. Boston : Blackwell Science, 1991: 3561.
  • 12
    Watanabe MC, Meeker CI, Gray MJ, Sims EAH, Soloman S. Secretion rate of aldosterone in normal pregnancy. J Clin Invest 1963; 42: 1619.
  • 13
    Lammintausta R, Erkkola R. Resin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sodium in normal pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1977; 56: 221225.
  • 14
    Seitchik J. Total body water and total body density of pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol 1967; 29: 155166.
  • 15
    Lindheimer MD, Kak AJ. Sodium and diuretics in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1973; 288: 891894.
  • 16
    Robertson EG, Cheyne A. Plasma biochemistry in relation to oedema of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Comnwlth 1972; 79: 769776.
  • 17
    Scott DE. Anaemia during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Annu 1972; 1: 219244.
  • 18
    Wu PYK, Udani V, Chan L, Miller FC, Henneman CE. Colloid osmotic pressure: variations in normal pregnancy. J Perinat Med 1983; 11: 193198.
  • 19
    Oian P, Maltau JM, Noddeland H, Fadnes HO. Oedema-preventing mechanisms in subcutaneous tissue of normal pregnant women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1985; 92: 11131119.
  • 20
    Oian P, Maltau JM. Calculated capillary hydrostatic pressure in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 157: 102106.
  • 21
    Valenzuela GJ, Cheshier S, Hunt G, Hunt R. Increased lymphatic pumping ability in pregnant ewes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167: 17561759.
  • 22
    Chelsey LC, Sloan DM. The effect of posture on renal function in late pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1964; 89: 754.
  • 23
    Lindheimer MD, Weston PV. Effect of hypotonic expansion on sodium water and urea excretion in late pregnancy: the influence of posture on these results. J Clin Invest 1969; 48: 947956.
  • 24
    Ladegaard-Pederson HJ. The colloid osmotic pressure in non-operated surgical patients. Acta Chir Scand 1973; 139: 135139.
  • 25
    Moise KJ, Cotton DB. Colloid osmotic pressure and pregnancy. In: ClarkSL, CottonDB, HankinsGDV, PhelanJP, editors. Critical Care in Pregnancy. Boston : Blackwell Science, 1991: 3561.
  • 26
    MRC Working Party. Births in Great Britain resulting from assisted conception (1978–1987). BMJ 1990; 300: 11291133.
  • 27
    Hankins GDV. Complications of beta-symphathomimetic tocolytic agents. In: ClarkSL, CottonDB, HankinsGDV, PhelanJP, editors. Critical Care in Pregnancy. Boston : Blackwell Science, 1991: 3561.
  • 28
    Rayburn W, Piehl E, Schork MA et al. Intravenous ritrodrine therapy: a comparison between twin and singleton gestations. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 67: 243248.
  • 29
    Campbell DM, MacGillivray I. Maternal physiological responses and birthweight in singleton and twin pregnancies by parity. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1977; 7: 1724.
  • 30
    Lammintausta R, Erkkola R. Effect of long term salbutamol treatment on renin aldosterone system in twin pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1979; 58: 447451.
  • 31
    Schrier RW, Lieberman R, Ufferman RC. Mechanisms of antidiuretic effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. J Clin Invest 1972; 51: 97104.
  • 32
    Kleinmann G, Muwayhid B, Ruddstorfer R et al. Circulatory and renal effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation in pregnant sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984; 149: 865874.
  • 33
    Grospietsch G, Fenske M, Girndt J, Uhliche E, Kuhn W. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, antidiuretic hormone levels, and water balance under tocolytic therapy with fenoterol and verapamil. Int J Obstet Gynaecol 1980; 17: 590593.
  • 34
    Armson BA, Samuels P, Miller F, Verbalis J, Main E. Evaluation of maternal fluid dynamics during tocolytic therapy with ritrodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulphate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 67: 758765.
  • 35
    Lammintausta R, Erkkola R, Katainen P. Effect of intravenous infusion of beta sympathomimetic agents on plasma renin activity during pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1978; 85: 828831.
  • 36
    Hanssens M, Keirse MJNC, Symonds EM. Activation of the renin angiotensin system during ritodrine treatment in preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990; 162: 10481055.
  • 37
    Hauth JC, Hankins GD, Kuehl TJ, Pierson NP. Ritodrine hydrochloride infusion in pregnant baboons I: biophysical effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 146: 916924.
  • 38
    Hankins GD, Hauth JC, Kuehl TJ et al. Ritrodrine hydrochloride infusion in pregnant baboons II: Sodium and water compartment alterations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983; 147: 254259.
  • 39
    Goyert G, Bhatia R, Schubert C et al. Does intravenous ritodrine therapy cause capillary endothelial damage Am J Perinatol 1987; 4: 331335.
  • 40
    Spatling L, Staisch KJ, Huch R, Huch A. Effects of ritodrine and betamethasone on metabolism, respiration and circulation. Am J Perinatol 1986; 3: 4147.
  • 41
    Hadi HA, Abdulla AM, Fadel HE et al. Cardiovascular effects of ritodrine tocolysis: a new non-invasive method to measure pulmonary capillary pressure during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1987; 70: 608612.
  • 42
    Philipsen T, Eriksen PS, Lyngaard F. Pulmonary oedema following ritodrine-saline infusion in premature labor. Obstet Gynecol 1981; 58: 304308.
  • 43
    Data held on file by Solvay Duphar. BV Weesp: The Netherlands , 1992.
  • 44
    Schwarz R, Retzke U. Cardiovascular effects of terbutaline in pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1983; 62: 419424.
  • 45
    Wagner JM, Morton MJ, Johnson KA et al. Terbutaline and maternal cardiac function: JAMA 1981; 246: 26972702.
  • 46
    Bremme K, Eneroth P, Carsjo BM, Nilsson B. Blood pressure regulation in third-trimester pregnant women receiving tocolytic terbutaline infusion. Int J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1986; 23: 5358.
  • 47
    Blickstein I, Zalel Y, Katz Y, Lancet M. Ritodrine-induced pulmonary oedema, unmasking underlying peripartum cardiomyopathy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159: 332333.
  • 48
    Mercer LJ, Aisenbrey G. Atrial myxoma as a complication of tocolytic therapy. A case report. J Reprod Med 1985; 50: 561562.
  • 49
    Reichman J, Goldman JA. Pulmonary edema after ritodrine infusion for preterm labor in a patient with mitral valve disease. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981; 60: 8788.
  • 50
    Price PH. Review of betamimetic drugs for tocolysis. Report to special FDA public meeting on re-evaluation of ritrodrine labelling. Data held on file by Solvay Duphar. BV Weesp: The Netherlands , 1992.
  • 51
    Schneider EP, Jonas E, Tejani N. Detection of cardiac events by continuous electrocardiogram monitoring during ritrodrine infusion. Obstet Gynecol 1988; 71: 361364.
  • 52
    Shin YK, Kim YD. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias during caesarean section after ritodrine therapy: interactions with anesthetics. South Med J 1988; 81: 528530.
  • 53
    Sherer DM, Nawrocki MN, Thompson HO, Woods JR. Type IA-V block during ritrodrine therapy for preterm labor. Am J Perinatol 1991; 8: 150152.
  • 54
    Smith SK, Thompson D. The effect of intravenous salbutamol upon plasma and urinary potassium during premature labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1971; 84: 344347.
  • 55
    Cano A, Tovar I, Parrilla JJ, Abad L. Metabolic disturbances during intravenous use of ritrodrine: increased insulin levels and hypokalaemia. Obstet Gynecol 1985; 65: 356360.
  • 56
    Kubli F. Discussion. In: AndersonA, BeardR, BrudenellJM, DunnPM, editors. Preterm Labour: Proceedings of the Fifth Study Group of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. London : RCOG, 1977: 218220.
  • 57
    Robertson PA, Herron M, Katz M, Creasy RK. Maternal morbidity associated with isoxuprine and terbutaline tocolysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1981; 11: 371378.
  • 58
    McGregor JA, French JI, Lawellin D, Todd JK. Preterm birth and infection: pathogenic possibilities. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol 1988; 16: 123132.
  • 59
    Romero R, Mazor M, Wu YK et al. Infection in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Semin Perinatol 1988; 12: 262279.
  • 60
    Gibbs RS, Romero R, Hillier SL, Eschenbach DA, Sweet RL. A review of premature birth and subclinical infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166: 15151528.
  • 61
    Lamont RF, Fisk NM. The role of infection in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. In: StuddJWW, editor. Progress in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 10. Edinburgh : Churchill Livingstone: 135158.
  • 62
    Lettieri L, Vintzileos AM, Rodis JF, Albin SM, Salafia CM. Does idiopathic preterm labour resulting in preterm birth exist Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168: 14801485.
  • 63
    Cammu H, Goosens A, Derde MP et al. C-reactive protein in preterm labour, association with outcome of tocolysis and placental histology. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 96: 314319.
  • 64
    Elkington KW, Greb LC. Adult respiratory distress syndrome as a complication of acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy: case report and discussion. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 67 (Suppl): 1820.
  • 65
    Pruett K, Faro S. Pyelonephritis associated with fetal distress. Obstet Gynecol 1987; 69: 444446.
  • 66
    Towers CV, Kaminskas CM, Garite TJ, Nageotte MP, Dorchester E. Pulmonary injury associated with antepartum pyelonephritis: can patients at risk be identified Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 164: 974978.
  • 67
    Cunningham FG, Lucas MJ, Hankins GDV. Pulmonary injury complicating antepartum pyelonephritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 156: 797807.
  • 68
    Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Hankins GDV, Whalley PJ. Respiratory insufficiency associated with pyelonephritis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1984; 63: 121125.
  • 69
    Eriksen NL, Parisi VM. Adult respiratory distress syndrome and pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1990; 14: 6878.
  • 70
    Mabie WC, Barton JR, Sibai BM. Adult respiratory distress syndrome in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992; 167: 950957.
  • 71
    De Veciana M, Towers CV, Major CA, Lien JM, Toohey JS. Pulmonary injury associated with appendicitis in pregnancy: who is at risk Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 10081013.
  • 72
    Gomez R, Romero R, Mazor M, Ghezzi F, David C, Yoon BH. The role of infection in preterm labor and delivery. In: ElderMG, LamontRF, RomeroR, editors. Preterm Labor. New York : Churchill Livingstone, 1997: 85126.
  • 73
    Yoon BH, Romero R, Jun JK, Park KH et al. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and the risk for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997; 176: S48.
  • 74
    Leviton A. Preterm birth and cerebral palsy: is tumour necrosis factor the missing link Dev Med Child Neurol 1993; 35: 553558.
  • 75
    Hollingworth HM, Irwin RS. Acute respiratory failure in pregnancy. Clin Chest Med 1992; 13: 723740.
  • 76
    Hatjis CG, Swain M. Systemic tocolysis for premature labor is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary edema in the presence of maternal infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988; 159: 723728.
  • 77
    Di Federico EM, Harrison M, Matthay MA. Pulmonary edema in a woman following fetal surgery. Chest 1996; 109: 11141117.
  • 78
    Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE. Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 1967; 2: 319323.
  • 79
    Murray BF, Matthay MA, Lace JM, Flick MR. An expanded definition of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 720723.
  • 80
    Russi EW, Spaetling L, Gmur J, Schneider H. High permeability pulmonary edema (ARDS) during tocolytic therapy: a case report. J Perinat Med 1988; 16: 4549.
  • 81
    Rosenow EC, Myers JL, Swensen SJ et al. Drug induced pulmonary disease: an update. Chest 1992; 102: 239250.
  • 82
    Besinger RE. A systemic review of adverse events documented in the use of currently available treatment of preterm labour. Res Clin Forum 1994; 16: 89126.