• 1
    Liggins GC, Howie RN. A controlled trial of antepartum glucocorticoid treatment for prevention of the respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Pediatrics 1972; 50: 515525.
  • 2
    Crowley P, Chalmers I, Keirse MJNC. The effects of corticosteroid administration before preterm delivery: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1990; 97: 1125.
  • 3
    NIH consensus development panel on the effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. Effect of corticosteroids for fetal maturation on perinatal outcomes. JAMA 1995; 275: 413418.
  • 4
    Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Scientific basis and therapeutic regimens for use of antenatal glucocorticoids. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173: 254262.
  • 5
    Magee LA, Dawes GS, Moulden M, Redman CWG. A randomised controlled comparison of betamethasone with dexamethasone: effects on the antenatal fetal heart rate. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 12331238.
  • 6
    Mulder EJH, Derks JB, Visser GHA. Antenatal corticosteroid therapy and fetal behaviour: a randomised study of the effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 12391247.
  • 7
    Dawes GS, Serra-Serra V, Moulden M, Redman CWG. Dexamethasone and fetal heart rate variation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 101: 675679.
  • 8
    Derks JB, Mulder EJH, Visser GHA. The effects of maternal betamethasone administration on the fetus. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102: 4046.
  • 9
    Mulder EJH, Derks JB, Zonneveld MF, Bruinse HW, Visser GHA. Transient reduction in fetal activity and heart rate variation after maternal betamethasone administration. Early Hum Dev 1994; 36: 4960.
  • 10
    Ville Y, Vincent Y, Tordjman N, Hue MV, Fernandez H, Frydman R. Effect of betamethasone on the fetal heart rate pattern assessed by computerized cardiotocography in normal twin pregnancies. Fetal Diagn Ther 1995; 10: 301306.
  • 11
    Multon O, Senat MV, Minoui S, Hue MV, Frydman R, Ville Y. Effect of antenatal betamethasone and dexamethasone administration on fetal heart rate variability in growth-retarded fetuses. Fetal Diagn Ther 1997; 12: 170177.
  • 12
    Katz M, Meizner I, Holcberg G, Mazor M, Hagay ZJ, Insler V. Reduction or cessation of fetal movements after administration for enhancement of lung maturation. 1. Clinical evaluation. Isr J Med Sci 1988; 24: 59.
  • 13
    Senat MV, Minoui S, Molton O, Fernandez H, Frydman R, Ville Y. Effect of dexamethasone and betamethasone on fetal heart rate variability in preterm labour: a randomised study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105: 749755.
  • 14
    Meizner I, Katz M, Holcberg G, Insler V. Reduction or cessation of fetal movements after administration for enhancement of lung maturation. 2: Analysis of blood flow velocimetry. Isr J Med Sci 1989; 25: 556559.
  • 15
    Cohlen BJ, Stigter RH, Derks JB, Mulder EJH, Visser GHA. Absence of significant hemodynamic changes in the fetus following maternal betamethasone administration. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1996; 8: 252255.
  • 16
    Dubiel M, Gudmundsson S, Pirhonen J, Breborowicz GH, Marsal K. Betamethasone treatment and fetal lung perfusion evaluated with color Doppler energy imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997; 10: 272276.
  • 17
    Wasserstrum N, Huhta JC, Mari G, Sharif DS, Willis R, Neal N. Betamethasone and the human fetal ductus arteriosus. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 74: 897900.
  • 18
    Azancot-Benisty A, Benifla JL, Matias A, De Crépy A, Madelenat P. Constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus during prenatal betamethasone therapy. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 85: 874876.
  • 19
    Wallace EM, Baker FS. Effect of antenatal betamethasone administration on placental vascular resistance. Lancet 1999; 353: 14041407.
  • 20
    Waffarn F, Siassi B, Cabal LA, Schmidt PL. Effect of antenatal glucocorticoids on clinical closure of the ductus arteriosus. Am J Dis Child 1983; 137: 336338.
  • 21
    Arduini D, Rizzo G. Normal values of pulsatility index from fetal vessels: a cross-sectional study on 1556 healthy fetuses. J Perinat Med 1990; 18: 165172.
  • 22
    Maulik D. Principles of Doppler signal processing and hemodynamic analysis. In: CopelJA, ReedKL, editors. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. New York : Raven Press, 1995: 118.
  • 23
    Alexander GR, Himes JH, Kaufman RB, Mor J, Kogan M. A United States national reference for fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 163168.
  • 24
    Arabin B, Mohnhaupt A, Becker R, Weitzel HK. Comparison of the prognostic value of pulsed Doppler blood flow parameters to predict SGA and fetal distress. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1992; 2: 272278.
  • 25
    Derks JB, Giussani DA, Jenkins SL et al. A comparative study of cardiovascular, endocrine and behaviour effects of betamethasone and dexamethasone administration to fetal sheep. J Physiol 1997; 499: 217226.
  • 26
    Wood CE, Cheung CY, Brace RA. Fetal heart rate, arterial pressure, and blood volume responses to cortisol infusion. Am J Physiol 1987; 283: R904R909.
  • 27
    De Kloet ER, Reul JMH, Sutanto W. Corticosteroids and the brain. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 1990; 37: 387394.
  • 28
    McDonald TJ, Myers DA, Nathanielsz PW. Localization of type II glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) in the fetal sheep brain at 120 days of gestation (dGA). J Physiol 1993; 459: 331P.
  • 29
    Walker BR, Williams BC. Corticosteroids and vascular tone: mapping the messenger maze. Clin Sci (Colch) 1992; 82: 597605.
  • 30
    Robinson BG, Emanuel RL, Frim DM, Majzoub JA. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85: 52445248.
  • 31
    Korebrits C, Yu DHT, Ramirez MM, Marinoni E, Bocking AD, Challis JRG. Antenatal glucocorticoid administration increases corticotrophin-releasing hormone in maternal plasma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105: 556561.
  • 32
    Clifton VL, Read MA, Leitch IM et al. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone-induced vasodilatation in the human fetal-placental circulation: involvement of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine 3′, 5′- monophosphate-mediated pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 28882893.
  • 33
    Challis JRG, Matthews SG, Van Meir C, Ramirez MM. Current topic: the placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone-adrenocorticotrophin axis. Placenta 1995; 16: 481502.
  • 34
    Dörr HG, Versmold HT, Sippell WG, Bidlingmaier F, Knorr D. Antenatal betamethasone therapy: Effects on maternal, fatal, and neonatal mineralocorticosteroids, glucocorticosteroids, and progestins. J Pediat 1986; 108: 990993.
  • 35
    Wood CE. Negative-feedback inhibition of fetal ACTH secretion by maternal cortisol. Am J Physiol 1987; 252: R743R748.