Over 50 unselected women with maternal venous thromboembolism were screened for the prothrombin 20210 G→A and MTHFR C677T mutations, in addition to screening for other thrombophilias. The prevalence of thrombophilia in these women was compared with its prevalence in the general population in our area. The prothrombin (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.2-16) and factor V Leiden (OR 4.5; 95% CI 2.1-14.5) mutations were more common in our patients, compared with the general population, whereas women homozygous for the C677T mutation in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.13-1.58) were not. It is recommended that women with a personal or strong family history of venous thromboembolism should be screened for the prothrombin mutation either before or early in pregnancy, in addition to screening for other thrombophilias. Screening for the MTHFR mutation does not appear to identify women at increased risk of maternal venous thrombosis.