• 1
    Belizan JM, Villar J. The relationship between calcium intake and edema-, proteinuria-, and hypertension-gestosis: an hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33: 22022210.
  • 2
    Belizan JM, Pineda O, Sainz E, Menendez LA, Villar J. Rise of blood pressure in calcium-deprived pregnant rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141: 163169.
  • 3
    Belizan JM, Villar J, Pineda O, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with calcium supplementation in young adults. JAMA 1983;249: 11611165.
  • 4
    Belizan JM, Villar J, Zalazar A, Rojas L, Chan D, Bryce GF. Preliminary evidence of the effect of calcium supplementation on blood pressure in normal pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;146: 175180.
  • 5
    Belizan JM, Villar J, Repke J. The relationship between calcium intake and pregnancy-induced hypertension: up-to-date evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158: 898902.
  • 6
    Atallah AN, Hofmeyr GJ, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2000: CD001059.
  • 7
    Belizan JM, Villar J, Gonzalez L, Campodonico L, Bergel E. Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1991;325: 13991405.
  • 8
    Belizan JM, Villar J, Bergel E, et al. Long term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997;315: 281285.
  • 9
    Barker DJ. Mothers, Babies, and Disease in Later Life. BMJ Publishing Group, London : 1994.
  • 10
    Law CM, Shiell AW. Is blood pressure inversely related to birth weight? The strength of evidence from a systematic review of the literature. J Hypertens 1996;14: 935941.
  • 11
    Law CM, Barker DJ, Bull AR, Osmond C. Maternal and fetal influences on blood pressure. Arch Dis Child 1991;66: 12911295.
  • 12
    Langley SC, Jackson AA. Increased systolic blood pressure in adult rats induced by fetal exposure to maternal low protein diets. Clin Sci 1994;86: 217222.
  • 13
    Goldstein H. Multilevel Statistical Models. London : Edward Arnold & Halstead Press, 1995.
  • 14
    Rasbash J, Browne W, Goldstein H. A Users's Guide to MLWIN. London : Institute of Education, 1999.
  • 15
    Hatton DC, Huie PS, Muntzel MS, Metz JA, Karanja N, McCarron DA. Blood pressure development and serum calcium in suckling spontaneously hypertensive rat pups: effects of maternal dietary calcium. J Hypertens Suppl 1986;4: S465S467.
  • 16
    Marchand MC, Langley-Evans SC. Intrauterine programming of nephron number: the fetal flaw revisited. J Nephrol 2001;14: 327331.
  • 17
    Langley-Evans SC, Gardner DS, Welham SJ. Intrauterine programming of cardiovascular disease by maternal nutritional status. Nutrition 1998;14: 3947.
  • 18
    Langley-Evans SC, Sherman RC, Welham SJ, Nwagwu MO, Gardner DS, Jackson AA. Intrauterine programming of hypertension: the role of the renin–angiotensin system. Biochem Soc Trans 1999;27: 8893.
  • 19
    Benediktsson R, Lindsay RS, Noble J, Seckl JR, Edwards CR. Glucocorticoid exposure in utero: new model for adult hypertension. Lancet 1993;341: 339341.
  • 20
    Langley-Evans SC, Gardner DS, Jackson AA. Maternal protein restriction influences the programming of the rat hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. J Nutr 1996;126: 15781585.
  • 21
    Sherman RC, Langley-Evans SC. Antihypertensive treatment in early postnatal life modulates prenatal dietary influences upon blood pressure in the rat. Clin Sci 2000;98: 269275.
  • 22
    Pang PK, Benishin CG, Lewanczuk RZ. Combined effect of dietary calcium and calcium antagonists on blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1992;19: 442446.
  • 23
    Resnick LM. The role of dietary calcium in hypertension: a hierarchical overview. Am J Hypertens 1999;12: 99112.
  • 24
    Pang PK, Benishin CG, Shan J, Lewanczuk RZ. PHF: the new parathyroid hypertensive factor. Blood Press 1994;3: 148155.
  • 25
    Lewanczuk RZ, Resnick LM, Ho MS, Benishin CG, Shan J, Pang PK. Clinical aspects of parathyroid hypertensive factor. J Hypertens Suppl 1994;12: S11S16.
  • 26
    Juliano BO. Rice in human nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Information Network on Post-Harvest Operations, 1998.
  • 27
    Optimal Calcium Intake. NIH Consensus Statement 1994;12.