• 1
    Beech B. Water birth—a passing fad? Modern Midwife 1998;7(5):1114.
  • 2
    National Childbirth Trust. Labour and Birth in Water. London: NCT, 1995.
  • 3
    Rosevear S, Fox R, Marlow N, Stirrat G. Birthing pools and the fetus. Lancet 1993;342: 10481049.
  • 4
    Nugyen S, Kuschel C, Teele R, Spooner C. Water birth—a near-drowning experience. Pediatrics 2002;110: 411413.
  • 5
    Hawkins S. Water vs. conventional births: infection rates compared. Nurs Times 1995;9(11):3840.
  • 6
    Austin T, Bridges N, Markiewicz M, Abrahamson E. Severe neonatal polycythaemia after third stage of labour underwater. Lancet 1997;350: 1445.
  • 7
    Rosenthal M. Warm-water immersion in labor and birth. Female Patient 1991;16: 3547.
  • 8
    Gilbert R, Tookey P. Perinatal mortality and morbidity among babies delivered in water: surveillance study and postal survey. BMJ 1999;319: 483487.
  • 9
    Odent M. Birth under water. Lancet 1983;24(31):14761477(December).
  • 10
    Atalla R, Weaver J. Labour and birth in water safety has yet to be determined. BMJ 1995;311: 390.
  • 11
    Eckert K, Turnball D, MacLennan A. Immersion in water in the first stage of labor: a randomized controlled trial. Birth 2001;28(2):8493.
  • 12
    Ohlsson G, Buchhave P, Leandersson U, Nordstrom L, Rydhstrom H, Sjolin I. Warm tub bathing during labor: maternal and neonatal effects. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001;80: 311314.
  • 13
    UKCC Position Statement on Waterbirths. Annex 1 to Registrar's Letter 16/1994.
  • 14
    Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Birth in Water. Available: (Accessed 2 June 2001).
  • 15
    Aird I, Luckas M, Buckett W, Bousfield P. Effects of intrapartum hydrotherapy on labour related parameters. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;37(2):137142.
  • 16
    Alderdice F, Renfrew M, Marchant S, Ashurst H, Berridge G, Garcia J. Labour and birth in water in England and Wales. BMJ 1995;310: 837.
  • 17
    Jenkins assessing the effect of a new health technology. In: BeechB, editor. Waterbirth Unplugged Proceedings of the First International Water Birth Conference. London: Books for Midwives, 1996: 5358.
  • 18
    Jowitt M. Problems with RCTs and midwifery. Midwifery Matters 2001;91: 910(Winter).
  • 19
    Rogers J, Wood J, McCandlish R, Ayres S, Truesdale A, Elbourne D. Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1998;351: 693699.
  • 20
    Fielding L, Grace R, Hittinger R. Patients who are eligible but not randomised should be included as additional comparative arm in study. BMJ 1999;318: 874875.
  • 21
    Brown L. The tide has turned: audit of water birth. Br J Midwifery 1998;6(4):236243.
  • 22
    Forde C, Creighton S, Batty A, Hawdon J, Summers-Ma S, Ridgway G. Labour and delivery in the birthing pool. Br J Midwifery 1999;7(3):165171.
  • 23
    Power G. Biology of temperature: the mammalian fetus. J Dev Psychol 1989;12: 295304.
  • 24
    Burns E, Greenish K. Pooling information. Nurs Times 1993;89(8):4749.
  • 25
    Garland D, Jones K. Waterbirth: updating the evidence. Br J Midwifery 1997;5(6):368373.
  • 26
    Robb E, Spiby H, Stewart P, Norman P. Hygiene in birthing pools. Nurs Times 1991;25(87):14.