• 1
    Hricak H, Alpers C, Crooks LE, Sheldon PE. Magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis: initial experience. Am J Radiol 1983;141: 11191128.
  • 2
    Lee JKT, Gersell D, Balfe DM, Worthington JL, Picus D, Gapp G. The uterus: in vitro MR–anatomic correlation of normal and abnormal specimens. Radiology 1985;157: 175179.
  • 3
    McCarthy S, Scott G, Majumadar S, et al. Uterine junctional zone: MR study of water content and relaxation properties. Radiology 1989;171: 241243.
  • 4
    Scoutt LM, Flyn SD, Luthringer DJ, McCauley TR, McCarthy SM. Junctional zone of the uterus: correlation of MR imaging and histologic examination of hysterectomy specimens. Radiology 1991;179: 403407.
  • 5
    Brosens JJ, De Souza NM, Barker FG. Uterine junctional zone: function and disease. Lancet 1995;346: 558560.
  • 6
    Tetlow RL, Richmond I, Manton DJ, Greenman J, Turnbull LW, Killick SR. Histological analysis of uterine junctional zone as seen by transvaginal ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol 1999;14: 188193.
  • 7
    Fleischer AC, Mendelson EB, Bohm-Velez M, Entman SS. Transvaginal and transabdominal sonography of the endometrium. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 1988;9: 81101.
  • 8
    Kunz G, Beil D, Huppert P, Leyendecker G. Structural abnormalities of the uterine wall in women with endometriosis and infertility visualized by vaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Hum Reprod 2000;15: 7682.
  • 9
    Wiczyk HP, Janus CL, Richards CJ, et al. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound in evaluating follicular and endometrial development throughout the normal cycle. Fertil Steril 1988;49: 969972.
  • 10
    McCarthy S, Tauber C, Gore J. Female pelvic anatomy: MR assessment of variations during the menstrual cycle and with the use of oral contraceptives. Radiology 1986;160: 119123.
  • 11
    Zawin M, McCarthy S, Scoutt L, et al. Monitoring therapy with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue: utility of MR imaging. Radiology 1990;175: 503506.
  • 12
    Demas BE, Hricak H, Jaffe RB. Uterine ME imaging: effect of hormonal stimulation. Radiology 1986;158: 123126.
  • 13
    Turnbull LW, Manton JD, Horsman A, Killick SR. Magnetic resonance imaging changes in uterine zonal anatomy during a conception cycle. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;102: 330331.
  • 14
    Barton JW, McCarthy SM, Kohorn EI, Scoutt LM, Lange RC. Pelvic MR imaging findings in gestational trophoblastic disease, incomplete abortion and ectopic pregnancy: are they specific? Radiology 1993;186: 163168.
  • 15
    Turnbull LW, Rice CF, Horsman A, Robinson J, Killick SR. Magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal ultrasound of the uterus prior to embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 1994;9: 24382443.
  • 16
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Tetlow RL, Manton DJ, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Ultrasound evaluation of uterine zonal anatomy during an IVF cycle. Hum Reprod 1999;14: 15931598.
  • 17
    Willms AB, Brown ED, Kettritz UI, Kuller JA, Semelka RC. Anatomic changes in the pelvis after uncomplicated vaginal delivery: evaluation with serial MR imaging. Radiology 1995;195: 9194.
  • 18
    Noe M, Kunz G, Herbertz , Mall G, Leyendecker G. The cyclic pattern of the immunocytochemical expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human myometrial and endometrial layers: characterization of the endometrial–subendometrial unit. Hum Reprod 1999;14: 190197.
  • 19
    Birnholz JC. Ultrasonic visualisation of endometrial movements. Fertil Steril 1984;41: 157158.
  • 20
    De Vries K, Lyons EA, Ballard G, Levi CS, Lindsay DJ. Contractions of the inner third of endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162: 678682.
  • 21
    Abramowicz JS, Archer DF. Uterine endometrial peristalsis—a transvaginal ultrasound study. Fertil Steril 1990;54: 451454.
  • 22
    Lyons EA, Taylor PJ, Zengh XH, Ballard G, Levi CS, Kredentser JV. Characterisation of subemdometrial contractions throughout the menstrual cycle in normal fertile women. Fertil Steril 1991;55: 771774.
  • 23
    Chalubinski K, Deutinger J, Bernaschek G. Vaginosonography for recording of cycle related myometrial contractions. Fertil Steril 1993;59: 225228.
  • 24
    Fukuda M, Fukuda K. Uterine endometrial cavity movement and cervical mucus. Hum Reprod 1994;9: 10131016.
  • 25
    Salamanca AM, Beltran E. Subendometrial contractility in menstrual phase visualized by transvaginal sonography in patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril 1995;64: 193195.
  • 26
    Kunz G, Leyendecker G. Uterine peristalsis throughout the menstrual cycle: physiological and pathophysiological aspects. Hum Reprod Update 1996;4(4) (CD-ROM).
  • 27
    Leyendecker G, Kunz G, Wildt L, Beil D, Deininger H. Uterine peristalsis and dysperistalsis as dysfunction of the mechanism of rapid sperm transport in patients with endometriosis and infertility. Hum Reprod 1996;11: 15421551.
  • 28
    Ijland MM, Evers JLH, Dunselman GAJ, Van-Katwijk C, Lo CR, Hoogland HJ. Endometrial wavelike movements during the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 1996;65: 746749.
  • 29
    Ijland MM, Evers JLH, Dunselman GAJ, Volovics L, Hoogland HJ. Relation between endometrial wavelike activity and fecundability in spontaneous cycles. Fertil Steril 1997;67: 492495.
  • 30
    Ijland MM, Evers JL, Hoogland HJ. Velocity of endometrial wavelike activity in spontaneous cycle. Fertil Steril 1997;68: 7275.
  • 31
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Tetlow RL, Robinson J, Maguiness SG. Uterine junctional zone contractions during assisted reproduction cycles. Hum Reprod Update 1998;4: 440445.
  • 32
    Fanchin R, Righini C, Olivennes F, Taylor S, de-Ziegler D, Frydman R. Uterine contractions as visualised by ultrasound alter pregnancy rates in IVF and embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 1998;13: 19681974.
  • 33
    Fanchin R, Righini C, de Ziegler R. Computerized assessment of progesterone effects on endometrial echogenity and uterine contractions. Program Supplement to Fertility and Sterility (16th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility and 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, San Francisco) 1998: 0123.
  • 34
    Hunter RHF. Human fertilization in vivo with special references to progression, storage and release of competent spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 1987;2: 329332.
  • 35
    Drobnis EZ, Overstreet JW. Natural history of mammalian spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. Oxf Rev Reprod Biol 1987;14: 146.
  • 36
    Harper MJK, Bennet JP, Rowson LEA. Movement of the ovum in the reproductive tract. Nature 1961;190: 788790.
  • 37
    Kunz G, Beil D, Deininger H, Wildt L, Leyendecker G. The dynamics of rapid sperm transport through the female genital track: evidence from vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis and hysterosalpingoscintigraphy. Hum Reprod 1996;11: 627632.
  • 38
    Croxatto HB, Ortiz ME, Diaz S, Hess R, Balmaceda J, Croxatto HD. Studies on the duration of the egg transport by the human oviduct. Ovum location at various intervals following luteinizing peak. Am J Obstet Gynec 1978;132: 629634.
  • 39
    Buster J, Bustillo M, Rodi I, et al. Biologic and morphologic development of donated human ova recovered by nonsurgical uterine lavage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;153: 211217.
  • 40
    Huisman GJ, Alberda AT, Leerentveldt RA, Verhoeff A, Zeilmaker GH. A comparison of in vitro fertilization results after embryo transfer after 2, 3, and 4 days of embryo culture. Fertil Steril 1994;61: 970971.
  • 41
    Dawson KJ, Conaghan J, Ostera GR, Winston RM, Hardy K. Delaying transfer to the third post-insemination day, to select non-arrested embryos, increases development to the fetal heart stage. Hum Reprod 1995;10: 177182.
  • 42
    Tao J, Tamis R, Fink K, Williams B, Nelson-White T, Craig R. The neglected morula/compact stage embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 15131518.
  • 43
    Gardner DK, Vella P, Lane M, Wagley L, Schlenker T, Schoolcraft WB. Culture and transfers of human blastocysts increases implantation rates and reduces the need for multiple embryo transfers. Fertil Steril 1998;69: 8488.
  • 44
    Van der Auvera I, Debrock S, Spiessens C, et al. A prospective randomized study: day 2 versus day 5 embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 15071512.
  • 45
    Utsunomiya T, Naitou T, Nagaki M. A prospective trial of blastocyst culture and transfer. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 18461851.
  • 46
    Rienzi L, Ubaldi F, Iacobelli M, et al. Day 3 embryo transfer with combined evaluation at the pronuclear stage compares favorably with day 5 blastocyst transfer. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 18521855.
  • 47
    Poindexter AN, Thompson DJ, Gibbons WE, Findley WE, Dodson MG, Young RL. Residual embryos in failed embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1986;46: 262267.
  • 48
    Schulman JD. Delayed expulsion of transfer fluid after IVF/ET. Lancet 1986;1: 44.
  • 49
    Azem F, Yaron Y, Botchan A. Ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF/ET): the possible role of the ET technique. J Assist Reprod Genet 1993;10: 302304.
  • 50
    Zouves C, Erenus M, Gomel V. Tubal ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a role for proximal occlusion or salpingectomy after failed distal tubal surgery. Fertil Steril 1991;56: 691695.
  • 51
    Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Reimplantation of the human embryo with subsequent tubal pregnancy. Lancet 1976;1: 880882.
  • 52
    Mansour RT, Aboulghar MA, Serour GI, Amin YM. Dummy embryo transfer using methylene blue. Hum Reprod 1994;9: 12571259.
  • 53
    Knutzen V, Stratton CJ, Sher G, McNamee PI, Huang TT, Soto-Albors C. Mock embryo transfer in early luteal phase, the cycle before in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer a descriptive study. Fertil Steril 1992;57: 156162.
  • 54
    Wood C, McMaster R, Rennie G, Trounson A, Leeton J. Factors influencing pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1985;43: 245250.
  • 55
    Englert Y, Puissant F, Camus M, Van Hoeck J, Leroy F. Clinical study on embryo transfer after human in vitro fertilization. J In Vitro Fertil Embryo Transfer 1986;3: 243246.
  • 56
    Mansour RT, Aboulghar MA, Serour GI. Dummy embryo transfer, a technique that minimizes the problems of embryo transfers and improves the pregnancy rate in human in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1990;54: 678681.
  • 57
    Visser DS, Fourie LR, Krugger HF. Multiple attempts at embryo transfer: effect on pregnancy outcome in an in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer program. J Assist Reprod Genet 1993;10: 3743.
  • 58
    Tomas O, Tapanainen J, Martikainen H. The difficulty of embryo transfer is an independent variable for predicting pregnancy in in-vitro fertilization treatments. Supplement to Fertil Steril (16th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility and 54th Annual meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, San Francisco) 1998: P-986.
  • 59
    Yovich JL, Turner SR, Murphy AJ. Embryo transfer technique as a cause of ectopic pregnancies in in vitro fertilisation. Fertil Steril 1985;44: 318321.
  • 60
    Nazari A, Askari AH, Check JH, O-Shaughnessy A. Embryo transfer as a cause of ectopic pregnancy in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 1993;60: 919921.
  • 61
    Pope SC, Cook EKD, Arny M, Novak A, Grow DR. Influence of embryo transfer depth on in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer outcomes. Fertil Steril 2004;81: 5158.
  • 62
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Tetlow RL, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Embryo transfer—can we learn anything new from the observation of junctional zone contractions? Hum Reprod 1998;13: 15401546.
  • 63
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Tetlow RL, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Embryo transfer and uterine junctional zone contractions. Hum Reprod Update 1999;5: 8788 (CD-ROM).
  • 64
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Robinson J, Raven G, Maguiness SD. Embryo transfer and junctional zone contractions: is it safe to use a tenaculum? Hum Reprod 1999;14: 23672370.
  • 65
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Robinson J, Titterington J, Maguiness SD. Case report: ectopic pregnancy after transmyometrial embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1999;72: 357359.
  • 66
    Biervliet FP, Lesny P, Maguiness SD, Robinson J, Killick SR. Transmyometrial embryo transfer and junctional zone contractions. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 347350.
  • 67
    Kovacs GT. What factors are important for successful embryo transfer after in-vitro fertilization? Hum Reprod 1999;14: 590592.
  • 68
    Salha OH, Lamb VK, Balen AH. A postal survey of embryo transfer practice in the UK. Hum Reprod 2001;16: 686690.
  • 69
    Waterstone J, Curson R, Parsons J. Embryo transfer to low uterine cavity. Lancet 1991;337: 1413.
  • 70
    Rosenlund B, Sjoblom P, Hillensjo T. Pregnancy outcome related to the site of embryo deposition in the uterus. J Assist Reprod Genet 1996;13: 511513.
  • 71
    Naaktgeboren N, Broers FC, Heijnsbroek I. Hard to believe, hardly discussed, nevertheless very important for the IVF/ICSI results: embryo transfer technique can double or halve the pregnancy rate [abstract] (ESHRE). Hum Reprod 1997;12: 149.
  • 72
    Dubisson JB, Aubriot FX, Mathieu L, Foulot H, Mandelbrot L, De Jolière JB. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in 556 pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; implications for preventive management. Fertil Steril 1991;56: 686689.
  • 73
    Verhulst G, Camus M, Bollen N, Van Steirteghem A, Devroey P. Analysis of the risk factors with regard to the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy after medically assisted procreation. Hum Reprod 1993;8: 12841287.
  • 74
    Marcus SF, Brinsden PR. Analysis of the incidence and risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum Reprod 1995;10: 199203.
  • 75
    Lesny P, Killick SR, Robinson J, Maguiness SD. Transcervical embryo transfer as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril 1999;72: 305309.
  • 76
    Wood EG, Batzer FR, Go KJ, Gutmann JN, Corson SL. Ultrasound-guided soft catheter embryo transfer will improve pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod 2000;15: 107112.
  • 77
    Coroleu B, Barri PN, Carreras O, et al. The influence of the depth of embryo replacement into the cavity on implantation rates after IVF: a controlled, ultrasound-guided study. Hum Reprod 2002;17: 341346.
  • 78
    Morizaki N, Morizaki J, Hayashi RH, Garfield RE. A functional and structural study of the innervation of the human uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;160: 218228.
  • 79
    Martinez-Mir MI, Estan L, Morales-Olivas FJ, Rubio E. Studies of the spontaneous motility and the effect of histamine on isolated myometrial strip of the non-pregnant uterus: the influence of various uterine abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;163: 189195.
  • 80
    Martinez-Mir MI, Estan L, Morales-Olivas FJ, Rubio E. Effect of histamine and histamine analogues on human isolated myometrial strips. Br J Pharmacol 1992;107: 528531.
  • 81
    Rudolph MI, Reinicke K, Cruz MA, Gallardo V, Gonzalez C, Bardisa L. Distribution of mast cells and the effect of their mediators on contractility in human myometrium. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1993;100: 11251129.
  • 82
    De Kretzer D, Dennis P, Hudson B, et al. Transfer of human zygote. Lancet 1973;1: 728729.
  • 83
    Meldrum DR, Chetkowski R, Steingold KA, de Ziegler D, Cedars MI, Hamilton M. Evolution of a highly successful in-vitro and embryo transfer program. Fertil Steril 1987;48: 8693.
  • 84
    Shaker AG, Fleming R, Jamieson ME, Yates RW, Coutts JR. Assessment of embryo transfer after in-vitro fertilization: effects of glyceryl trinitrate. Hum Reprod 1993;8: 14261428.
  • 85
    Diedrich K, Van der Ven H, Al-Hasani A, Krebs D. Establishment of pregnancy related to embryo transfer techniques after IVF/ET. Hum Reprod 1989;4: 111114.
  • 86
    Dorn C, Reisenberg J, Schlebusch H, Prietl G, van der Ven H, Krebs D. Serum oxytocin concentration during embryo transfer procedure. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999;87: 7780.
  • 87
    Maggi M, Magini A, Fiscella A, et al. Sex steroid modulation of neurophysiological hormone receptors in human non pregnant myometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74: 385392.
  • 88
    Akerlund M, Hauksson A, Lundin S, Melin P, Trojnar J. Oxytocin analogues which competitively inhibit vasopressin stimulated uterine activity in healthy women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986;93: 2227.
  • 89
    Steinwall M, Akerlund M, Bossmar T, Nishii M, Wright M. ONO-8815Ly, an EP2 agonist that markedly inhibits uterine contractions in women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004;111: 120124.