What is already known on this subject:
Female genital appearance: ‘normality’ unfolds
Article first published online: 17 DEC 2004
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Volume 112, Issue 5, pages 643–646, May 2005
How to Cite
Lloyd, J., Crouch, N. S., Minto, C. L., Liao, L.-M. and Creighton, S. M. (2005), Female genital appearance: ‘normality’ unfolds. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 112: 643–646. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00517.x
Very few studies are available in the literature on the range of measurements of female genitalia. Recent studies have found that the clitoris is more extensive than previously thought. Genital surgery is known to cause problems with sexual function.
What this study adds:
This study illustrates the wide range of genital dimensions in normal women. This information can be considered by women and doctors when making the decision to havegenital surgery.
- Issue published online: 12 JAN 2005
- Article first published online: 17 DEC 2004
Objective To describe variations in genital dimensions of normal women.
Design Observational cross-sectional study.
Setting Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, University College Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK.
Population Fifty premenopausal women having gynaecological procedures not involving the external genitalia under general anaesthetic.
Methods A cross sectional study using digital photography and measurements of the external genitalia.
Main outcome measures Clitoral size, labial length and width, colour and rugosity, vaginal length, distance from clitoris to urethral orifice, distance from posterior fourchette to anterior anal margin.
Results A wide range of values were noted for each measurement. There was no statistically significant association with age, parity, ethnicity, hormonal use or history of sexual activity.
Conclusion Women vary widely in genital dimensions. This information should be made available to women when considering surgical procedures on the genitals, decisions for which must be carefully considered between surgeon and woman.