• 1
    European Multicentre Study on Congenital Toxoplasmosis (EMSCOT). Effect of timing and type of treatment on the risk of mother to child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2003;110: 112120.
  • 2
    Hohlfeld P, Daffos F, Costa JM, Thulliez P, Forestier F, Vidaud M. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis with a polymerase-chain-reaction test on amniotic fluid. N Engl J Med 1994;331: 695699.DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199409153311102
  • 3
    Berrebi A, Kobuch WE, Bessieres MH, et al. Termination of pregnancy for maternal toxoplasmosis. Lancet 1994;344: 3639.
  • 4
    Romand S, Wallon M, Franck J, Thulliez P, Peyron F, Dumon H. Prenatal diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction on amniotic fluid for congenital toxoplasmosis. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97: 296300.DOI: 10.1016/S0029-7844(00)01118-2
  • 5
    Savva D, Morris JC, Johnson JD, Holliman RE. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Toxoplasma gondii. J Med Microbiol 1990;32: 2531.
  • 6
    Cazenave J, Forestier F, Bessieres MH, Broussin B, Begueret J. Contribution of a new PCR assay to the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenat Diagn 1992;12: 119127.
  • 7
    Foulon W, Pinon J-M, Stray-Pedersen B, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: a multicenter evaluation of different diagnostic parameters. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181: 847.
  • 8
    Gratzl R, Hayde M, Kohlhauser C, et al. Follow-up of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis of amniotic fluid. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1998;17: 853858.DOI: 10.1007/s100960050206
  • 9
    Jenum PA, Holberg Petersen M, Melby KK, Stray Pedersen B. Diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid samples. The Norwegian experience. APMIS 1998;106: 680686.
  • 10
    Pratlong F, Boulot P, Issert E, et al. Fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in 190 women infected during pregnancy. Prenat Diagn 1994;14: 191198.
  • 11
    Fricker Hidalgo H, Pelloux H, Muet F, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures. Prenat Diagn 1997;17: 831835.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0223(199709)17:9<831::AID-PD156>3.3.CO;2-O
  • 12
    Simsek S, Christiaens GC, Kanhai HH, et al. Human platelet antigen-1 (Zw) typing of fetuses by analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA from amniocytes. Transfus Med 1994;4: 1519.
  • 13
    Donner C, Lambermont M, Karioun A, Paquet V, Vermeylen D, Rodesch F. Monitoring and treatment of fetal maternal allo-immunization. Role of cordocentesis. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 1994;23: 892897.
  • 14
    Freeman K, Oakley L, Pollak A, et al. Congenital toxoplasmosis and preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age birth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2004. In press.
  • 15
    Pelloux H, Weiss J, Simon J, et al. A new set of primers for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid using polymerase chain reaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996;138: 1115.DOI: 10.1016/0378-1097(96)00057-2
  • 16
    Ajzenberg D, Cogne N, Paris L, et al. Genotype of 86 Toxoplasma gondii isolates associated with human congenital toxoplasmosis, and correlation with clinical findings. J Infect Dis 2002;186: 684689.DOI: 10.1086/342663
  • 17
    Bessieres MH, Cassaing S, Berrebi A, Seguela J. Value of polymerase chain reaction test on amniotic fluid for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Immuno Anal Biol Spec 2002;17: 358362.DOI: 10.1016/S0923-2532(02)01224-3
  • 18
    Dunn D, Wallon M, Peyron F, Petersen E, Peckham CS, Gilbert RE. Mother to child transmission of toxoplasmosis: risk estimates for clinical counselling. Lancet 1999;353: 18291833.DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)08220-8
  • 19
    Thalhammer O. Symposium 1. Prevention of congenital infections. Introductory remarks. In: ThalhammerO, BaumgartenK, PollakA, editors. Perinatal Medicine. Proceedings of the Sixth European Congress on Perinatal Medicine, Vienna 1978. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Publishers, 1978: 4451.
  • 20
    Villena I, Bory JP, Chemla C, Hornoy P, Pinon JM. Congenital toxoplasmosis: necessity of clinical and ultrasound follow-up despite negative amniocentesis. Prenat Diagn 2003;23: 10981099.DOI: 10.1002/pd.754
  • 21
    Gay-Andrieu F, Marty P, Pialat J, Sournies G, Drier DL, Peyron F. Fetal toxoplasmosis and negative amniocentesis: necessity of an ultrasound follow-up. Prenat Diagn 2003;23: 558560.DOI: 10.1002/pd.632
  • 22
    Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Sackett DL. Users' guides to the medical literature. III: How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B: What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? JAMA 1994;271(9):703707.DOI: 10.1001/jama.271.9.703
  • 23
    Habbema JDF, Eijkemans R, Krijnen P, Knotterus JA. Analysing the accuracy of diagnostic tests. In: KnotterusJA, editor. The Evidence Base of Clinical Diagnosis. London: BMJ Books, 2002: 117143.
  • 24
    Gleason JR. Improved confidence intervals for binomial proportions. STATA Tech Bull 1999;52: 1618.
  • 25
    Simel DL, Samsa GP, Matchar DB. Likelihood ratios with confidence: sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44: 763770.DOI: 10.1016/0895-4356(91)90128-V
  • 26
    Newcombe RG, Altman DG. Proportions and their differences. In: AltmanDG, MachinD, BryantTN, GardnerMJ, editors. Statistics with Confidence. Bristol: BMJ Books, 2000: 4556.
  • 27
    Stokes ME, Davis CS, Koch GG. Categorical Data Analyses Using the SAS System, 2nd edition. Cary (North Carolina, USA): SAS Institute, 2000.
  • 28
    Thiebaut R, Gilbert RE, Gras L, Chene G. Timing and type of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis [Protocol for a Cochrane review]. The Cochrane Library. Chichester (UK): Wiley, 2003.
  • 29
    Lijmer JG, Mol BW, Heisterkamp S, et al. Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests. JAMA 1999;282: 10611066.DOI: 10.1001/jama.282.11.1061
  • 30
    Bretagne S. Molecular diagnostics in clinical parasitology and mycology: limits of the current polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and interest of the real-time PCR assays. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003;9: 505511.
  • 31
    Pelloux H, Guy E, Angelici MC, et al. A second European collaborative study on polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii, involving 15 teams. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998;165: 231237.DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1097(98)00281-X
  • 32
    Gilbert RE, Gras L, Wallon M, Peyron F, Ades AE, Dunn D. Effect of prenatal treatment on mother to child transmission of Toxoplasma gondii: a cohort study of 554 mother–child pairs in Lyon, France. Int J Epidemiol 2001;30: 13031308.DOI: 10.1093/ije/30.6.1303
  • 33
    Schoondermark van de Ven E, Galama J, Vree T, et al. Study of treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1995;39: 137144.
  • 34
    Romand S, Chosson M, Franck J, et al. Usefulness of quantitative polymerase chain reaction in amniotic fluid as early prognostic marker of fetal infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;190: 797802.DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2003.09.039
  • 35
    Alfirevic Z, Sundberg K, Brigham S. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003: CD003252.
  • 36
    Grover CM, Thulliez P, Remington JS, Boothroyd JC. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasma infection by using polymerase chain reaction and amniotic fluid. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28: 22972301.
  • 37
    Dupouy-Camet J, Bougnoux ME, Lavareda-de-Souza S, et al. Comparative value of polymerase chain reaction and conventional biological tests for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Ann Biol Clin Paris 1992;50: 315319.
  • 38
    Robert-Gangneux F, Gavinet MF, Ancelle T, Raymond J, Tourte-Schaefer C, Dupouy-Camet J. Value of prenatal diagnosis and early postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: retrospective study of 110 cases. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37: 28932898.
  • 39
    Antsaklis A, Daskalakis G, Papantoniou N, Mentis A, Michalas S. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenat Diagn 2002;22: 11071111.DOI: 10.1002/pd.476