• 1
    Bump RC, Norton PA. Epidemiology and natural history of pelvic floor dysfunction. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1998;25: 723746.
  • 2
    Samuelsson EC, Arne Victor FT, Tibblin G, Svardsudd KF. Signs of genital prolapse in a Swedish population of women 20 to 59 years of age and possible related factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(2 Pt 1):299305.
  • 3
    Olsen AL, Smith VJ, Bergstrom JO, Colling JC, Clark AL. Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1997;89: 501506.
  • 4
    Beck RP, McCormick S, Nordstrom L. A 25-year experience with 519 anterior colporrhaphy procedures. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78: 10111018.
  • 5
    Wilcox LS, Koonin LM, Pokras R, Strauss LT, Xia Z, Peterson HB. Hysterectomy in the United States, 1988–1990. Obstet Gynecol 1994;83(4):549555.
  • 6
    Swift SE, Tate SB, Nicholas J. Correlation of symptoms with degree of pelvic organ support in a general population of women: what is pelvic organ prolapse? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189: 372379.
  • 7
    Herzog AR, Fultz NH. Prevalence and incidence of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling populations. J Am Geriatr Soc 1990;38(3):273281.
  • 8
    Lam GW, Foldspang A, Elving LB, Mommsen S. Urinary incontinence in women aged 30–59 years. An epidemiological study. Ugeskr Laeger 1990;152(44):32443246.
  • 9
    Burgio KL, Matthews KA, Engel BT. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of urinary incontinence in healthy, middle-aged women. J Urol 1991;146(5):12551259.
  • 10
    Rekers H, Drogendijk AC, Valkenburg H, Riphagen F. Urinary incontinence in women from 35 to 79 years of age: prevalence and consequences. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1992;43(3):229234.
  • 11
    Brocklehurst JC. Urinary incontinence in the community–analysis of a MORI poll. BMJ 1993;306: 832834.
  • 12
    Bump RC, Mattiasson A, Bo K, et al. The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175: 1017.
  • 13
    Bland DR, Earle BB, Vitolins MZ, Burke G. Use of the pelvic organ prolapse staging system of the International Continence Society, American Urogynecologic Society and Society of Gynecologic Surgeons in perimenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181: 13241328.
  • 14
    Digesu GA, Khullar V, Cardozo L, Robinson D, Salvatore S. P-QOL: A validated questionnaire to assess the symptoms and quality of life of women with urogenital prolapse. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004. In press [ 21 October 2004].
  • 15
    Cespedes RD, Cross CA, McGuire EJ. Pelvic prolapse: diagnosing and treating uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. Medscape Women's Health 1998;3(4):3.
  • 16
    Weber AM, Walters MD, Ballard LA, Booher DL, Piedmonte MR. Posterior vaginal prolapse and bowel function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179: 14461449.
  • 17
    Ellerkmann RM, Cundiff GW, Melick CF, Nihira MA, Leffler K, Bent AE. Correlation of symptoms with location and severity of pelvic organ prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185: 13321337.
  • 18
    Kahn MA, Stanton SL. Posterior colporrhaphy: its effects on bowel and sexual function. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104(1):8286.
  • 19
    Hanzal E, Berger E, Koelbl H. Levator ani muscle morphology and recurrent genuine stress incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1993;81(3):426429.
  • 20
    Jorgensen L, Lose G, Molsted-Pedersen L. Vaginal repair in female motor urge incontinence. Eur Urol 1987;13(6):382385.
  • 21
    Stanton SL, Hilton P, Norton C, Cardozo L. Clinical and urodynamic effects of anterior colporrhaphy and vaginal hysterectomy for prolapse with and without incontinence. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1982;89(6):459463.
  • 22
    Kahn MA, Stanton SL. Techniques of rectocele repair and their effects on bowel function. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 1998;9(1):3747.
  • 23
    Walter S, Hallbook O, Gotthard R, Bergmark M, Sjodahl R. A population-based study on bowel habits in a Swedish community: prevalence of faecal incontinence and constipation. Scand J Gastroenterol 2002;37(8):911916.
  • 24
    Haase P, Skibsted L. Influence of operations for stress incontinence and/or genital descensus on sexual life. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1988;67: 659661.