• 1
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisawi P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2000. Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. Version 1.0. IARC Cancer Base No. 5. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001.
  • 2
    ParkinDM, WhelanSL, FerlayJ, TeppoL, ThomasDB, editors. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, VIII. IARC Scientific Publications No. 155, Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002.
  • 3
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer world wide. J Pathol 1999;189: 1219.
  • 4
    Munoz N, Bosch FX, de Sanjose S, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;348: 518527.
  • 5
    Clifford GM, Smith JS, Plummer M, Munoz N, Franceschi S. Human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer worldwide: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2003;88: 6373.
  • 6
    Christensen ND, Kreider JW, Cladel NM, Patrick SD, Welsh PA. Monoclonal antibody-mediated neutralization of infectious human papillomavirus type 11. J Virol 1990;64: 56785681.
  • 7
    Schwarz E, Freese UK, Gissmann L, et al. Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. Nature 1985;314: 111114.
  • 8
    Bontkes HJ, DeGruijl TD, Walboomers JMM, et al. Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II. Systemic but not local IGA responses correlate with clearance of HPV16. J Gen Virol 1999;80: 409417.
  • 9
    Kirnbauer R, Booy F, Cheng N, Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like-particles that are highly immunogenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89: 1218012184.
  • 10
    Harro CD, Pang YY, Roden RB, et al. Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like-particle vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93: 284292.
  • 11
    Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM, et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2002;347: 16451647.
  • 12
    Harper DM, Franco EL, Wheeler C, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364: 17571764.
  • 13
    Summary chapter: IARC Working Group on Cervical Cancer Screening. In: HakamaM, MillerAB, DayNE, editors. Screening for Cancer of the Uterine Cervix. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1986: 133142.
  • 14
    IARC Working Group on Evaluation of Cervical Cancer Screening Programmes. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: the duration of low risk after negative result of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. BMJ 1986;293: 659664.
  • 15
    Hakama M, Louhivuori K. A screening programme for cervical cancer that worked. Cancer Surv 1988;17(3):403416.
  • 16
    Howson C, Harrison P, Hotra D, Law M. In Her Lifetime. Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington (DC): National Academy Press, 1996: 2553 [Chapter 2].
  • 17
    Nanda K, McCrory DC, Myers ER, et al. Accuracy of the Papanicolaou test in screening for and follow-up of cervical cytologic abnormalities: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2000;132: 810819.
  • 18
    Fahey MT, Irwig L, Macaskill P. Meta-analysis of Pap test accuracy. Am J Epidemiol 1995;141: 680689.
  • 19
    Schiller W. Leucoplakia, leucokeratosis, and carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1938;35: 1738.
  • 20
    Ottaviano M, La Torre P. Examination of the cervix with the naked eye using acetic acid test. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;143: 139142.
  • 21
    Cecchini S, Bonardi R, Mazzotta A, Grazzini G, Iossa A, Ciatto S. Testing cervicography and cervicoscopy as screening tests for cervical cancer. Tumori 1993;79: 2225.
  • 22
    Megevand E, Denny L, Dehaeck K, Soeters R, Bloch B. Acetic acid visualization of the cervix: an alternative to cytologic screening. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88: 383386.
  • 23
    Sankaranarayanan R, Shyamalakumary B, Wesley R, Sreedevi Amma N, Parkin DM, Nair MK. Visual inspection with acetic acid in the early detection of cervical cancer and precursors. Int J Cancer 1999;80: 161163.
  • 24
    Sankaranarayanan R, Wesley R, Somanathan T, et al. Visual inspection of the uterine cervix after the application of acetic acid in the detection of cervical carcinoma and its precursors. Cancer 1998;83: 21502156.
  • 25
    University of Zimbabwe/JHPIEGO Cervical Cancer Project. Visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical-cancer screening: test qualities in a primary-care setting. Lancet 1999;353: 869873.
  • 26
    Denny L, Kuhn L, Pollack A, Wainwright H, Wright Jr TC. Evaluation of alternative methods of cervical cancer screening for resource-poor settings. Cancer 2000;89: 826833.
  • 27
    Belinson JL, Pretorius RG, Zhang WH, Wu LY, Qiao YL, Elson P. Cervical cancer screening by simple visual inspection after acetic acid. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98: 441444.
  • 28
    Denny L, Kuhn L, Pollack A, Wright Jr TC. Direct visual inspection for cervical cancer screening. An analysis of factors influencing test performance. Cancer 2002;94: 16991707.
  • 29
    Cronje H, Parham G, Cooreman B, de Beer A, Divall P, Bam R. A comparison of four screening methods for cervical neoplasia in a developing country. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;183: 395400.
  • 30
    Sankaranayan R, Rajkumar R, Theresa R, et al. Initial results from a randomized trial of cervical visual screening in rural South India. Int J Cancer 2004;109: 461467.
  • 31
    Gaffikin L, Blumenthal P, Emerson M, et al. Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single visit approach to cervical-cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project. Lancet 2003;361: 814820.
  • 32
    Ho GYF, Bierman R, Beardsley L, Chang CJ, Burk RD. Natural history of cervicovaginal papillomavirus infection in young women. N Engl J Med 1998;338: 423428.
  • 33
    Wheeler CM, Greer CE, Becker TM, Hunt WC, Anderson SM, Manos MM. Short-term fluctuations in the detection of cervical human papillomavirus DNA. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88: 261268.
  • 34
    Cuzick J, Sasieni P, Davies P, et al. A systematic review of the role of human papillomavirus testing within a cervical screening programme. Health Technol Asses 1999;3(14):6162.
  • 35
    Hildesheim A, Schiffman MH, Gravitt PE, et al. Persistence of type-specific human papillomavirus infection among cytologically normal women. J Infect Dis 1994;169: 235240.
  • 36
    Evander M, Edlund K, Gustafsson A, et al. Human papillomavirus infection is transient in young women: a population-based cohort study. J Infect Dis 1995;171: 10261030.
  • 37
    Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM, Smith G, Siboshski S, Schoolnik G. Variability of human papillomavirus DNA testing in a longitudinal cohort of young women. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82: 578585.
  • 38
    Koutsky LA, Holmes KK, Critchlow CW, et al. A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection. N Engl J Med 1992;327(18):12721278.
  • 39
    Schiffman MH, Kiviat NB, Burk RD, et al. Accuracy and interlaboratory reliability of human papillomavirus DNA testing by hybrid capture. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33: 545550.
  • 40
    Castle PE, Lorincz AT, Mielzynska-Lohnas I, et al. Results of human papillomavirus DNA testing with the Hybrid Capture 2 assay are reproducible. J Clin Microbiol 2002: 10881090 (March).
  • 41
    Salmeron J, Lazcano-Ponce E, Lorincz A, Hernandez M, Hernandez P, Leyva A. Comparison of HPV-based assays with Papanicolaou smears for cervical cancer screening in Morelos State, Mexico. Cancer Causes Control 2003;14(6):505515.
  • 42
    Schiffman M, Herrero R, Hildesheim A, et al. HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening: results from a high-risk province in Costa Rica. JAMA 2000;283: 8793.
  • 43
    Kuhn L, Denny L, Pollack A, Wright TC. Human papillomavirus DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92: 818825.
  • 44
    Belinson J, Qiao Y, Pretorius R, et al. Prevalence of cervical cancer and feasibility of screening in rural China: a pilot study for the Shanxi province cervical cancer screening study. Int J Gyn Cancer 1999;9: 411417.
  • 45
    Denny L, Kuhn L, Risi L, et al. Two-stage cervical cancer screening: an alternative for resource-poor settings. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183: 383388.
  • 46
    Wright TC, Denny L, Kuhn L, Pollack A, Lorincz A. HPV DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples compared with cytologic screening to detect cervical cancer. JAMA 2000;283: 8186.