• 1
    Department of Health. Statistical Bulletin: NHS Maternity Statistics, England: 2001-2002. London: D.O.H, 2003.
  • 2
    Cust AE, Darlow BA, Donogue DA. Outcomes for high risk New Zealand newborn infants in 1998-1999: a population based national study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2003;88: F15–F22.
  • 3
    Macfarlane A, Mugford M, Henderson J, Furtado A, Stevens J, Dunn A. Birth Counts: Statistics of Pregnancy and Childbirth. Sec ond Volume Tables. London: The Stationery Office, 2000.
  • 4
    Wood NS, Marlow N, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Wilkinson AR. EPICure Study Group. Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 2000;343: 378384.
  • 5
    Roth S, Wyatt J, Baudin J, et al. Looking back in time: outcome of a national cohort of very preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 1983. Early Hum Dev 2000;59: 175191.
  • 6
    Creasy RK, Gummer BA, Liggins GC. System for predicting spontaneous preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 1980;55: 692695.
  • 7
    Heath VC, Southall TR, Souka AP, Elisseou A, Nicolaides KH. Cervical length at 23 weeks of gestation: prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol 1998;12: 312317.
  • 8
    Welsh A, Nicolaides K. Cervical screening for preterm delivery. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2002;14: 195202.
  • 9
    Hillier SL, Nugent RP, Eschenbach DA, et al. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm delivery of a low birth-weight infant. N Engl J Med 1995;333: 17371743.
  • 10
    Goldenberg RL, Iams JD, Mercer BM, et al. The preterm prediction study: toward a multiple-marker test for spontaneous pre-term birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185: 643651.
  • 11
    Lockwood CJ, Senyei AE, Dische MR, et al. Fetal fibronectin in cervical and vaginal secretions as a predictor of preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 1991;325: 669674.
  • 12
    Honest H, Bachmann LM, Gupta JK, Kleijnen J, Khan KS. Accuracy of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test in predicting risk of spontaneous preterm birth: systematic review. BMJ 2002;325: 301311.
  • 13
    Shennan AH, Jones G, Hawken J, et al. Fetal fibronectin test predicts delivery before 30 weeks of gestation in high risk women, but in creases anxiety. BJOG 2005;112(3):293298.
  • 14
    Hillier S, Martins J, Krohn M, Kiviat N, Holmes K, Eschenbach D. A case-control study of chorioamniotic infection and histologic chorioamnionitis in prematurity. N Engl J Med 1988;319: 972978.
  • 15
    Carey JC, Klebanoff MA, Hauth JC, et al. Metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 2000;342: 534540.
  • 16
    Andrews WW, Sibai BM, Thom EA, et al. Randomised clinical trial of metronidazole plus erythromycin to prevent spontaneous preterm delivery in fetal fibronectin-positive women. Obstet Gynaecol 2003;101: 847855.
  • 17
    Goldenberg RL, Klebanoff M, Carey JC, Macpherson C. Metronidazole treatment of women with a positive fetal fibronectin test result. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185: 485486.
  • 18
    Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, DuBard MB, Copper RL. Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and eryth-romycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 1995;333(26):17321736.
  • 19
    Morales WJ, Schorr S, Albritton J. Effect of metronidazole in patients with preterm birth in preceding pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171(2):345347.
  • 20
    Nugent RP, Krohn MA, Hillier SL. Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain inter pretation. J Clin Microbiol 1991;29: 297301.
  • 21
    Wilson J. Managing recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80: 811.
  • 22
    Odendaal HJ, Popov I, Schoeman J, Smithy M, Grove D. Preterm labour—is bacterial vaginosis involved? S Afr Med J 2002;92: 231234.
  • 23
    Klebanoff MA, Carey C, Hauth JC, et al. Failure of metronidazole to prevent preterm delivery among pregnant women with asymptomatic trichomonas vaginalis infection. N Engl J Med 2001;345: 487493.
  • 24
    MacDonald HM, O'Loughlin JA, Vigneswaren R, et al. Impact of metronidazole therapy on preterm birth in women with bacterial vaginosis flora (Gardenerella vaginalis): a randomised, placebo controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104: 13911397.
  • 25
    Leitich H, Brunbauer M, Bodner-Adler B, Kaider A, Egarter C, Husslein P. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188: 752758.
  • 26
    Wilks M, Wiggins R, Whiley A, et al. Identification and H2O2 production of vaginal lactobacilli from pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth and relation with outcome. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 713717.
  • 27
    Ugwumadu A, Manyonda I, Reid F, Hay P. Effect of early oral clindamycin on late miscarriage and preterm delivery in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361: 983988.
  • 28
    Carroll SG, Philpott-Howard J, Nicolaides KH. Amniotic fluid gram stain and leukocyte count in the prediction of intrauterine infection in preterm prelabour amniorrhexis. Fetal Diagn Ther 1996;11: 15.
  • 29
    Romero R, Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T, Kalache K. Infection and prematurity and the role of preventive strategies. Semin Neonatol 2002;7: 259274.
  • 30
    Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G. Bacterial vaginosis, the inflammatory response and the risk of preterm birth: a role for genetic epidemiology in the prevention of preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;190: 15091519.