In developed countries, antiretroviral treatment has increased life quality and expectancy of HIV-infected individuals and led to a drop in mother-to-child transmission (MCT) risk to below 1%. Fertility has been shown to be reduced in both men and women with HIV. As a result of these factors, the demand for reproductive care in this population is rising. In discordant couples where the man is positive, sperm washing significantly reduces viral transmission risk to the uninfected female partner over unprotected intercourse. Positive women do not necessarily need specialised fertility treatment but should be monitored closely during pregnancy to minimise MCT risk.