SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Dhindsa G, Bhatia R, Dhindsa M, Bhatia V. Insulin resistance, insulin sensitization and inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Postgrad Med 2004;50:1404.
  • 2
    The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod 2004;19:417.
  • 3
    Ruderman N, Chisholm D, Pi-Sunyer X, Schneider S. The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited. Diabetes 1998;47:699713.
  • 4
    Lefebvre P, Bringer J, Renard E, Boulet F, Clouet S, Jaffiol C. Influences of weight, body fat patterning and nutrition on the management of PCOS. Hum Reprod 1997;12(Suppl 1):7281.
  • 5
    WHO. Measuring obesity classification and description of anthropometric data. In: WHO, editor. Eur/ICP/NUT 125-0612v. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 1988.
  • 6
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:41219.
  • 7
    Hermans MP, Levy JC, Morris RJ, Turner RC. Comparison of insulin sensitivity tests across a range of glucose tolerance from normal to diabetes. Diabetologia 1999;42:67887.
  • 8
    Wallace TM, Levy JC, Matthews DR. Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 2004;27:148795.
  • 9
    Clark AM, Ledger W, Galletly C, Tomlinson L, Blaney F, Wang X, et al. Weight loss results in significant improvement in pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulatory obese women. Hum Reprod 1995;10:270512.
  • 10
    Huber-Buchholz MM, Carey DGP, Norman RJ. Restoration of reproductive potential by lifestyle modification in obese polycystic ovary syndrome: role of insulin sensitivity and luteinizing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:14704.
  • 11
    Despres JP, Lemieux I, Prud’homme D. Treatment of obesity: need to focus on high risk abdominally obese patients. BMJ 2001;322:71620.
  • 12
    Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Evans WS, Pasquali R. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998;338:187680.
  • 13
    Lord J, Wilkin T. Polycystic ovary syndrome and fat distribution: the central issue? Hum Fertil (Camb) 2002;5:6771.
  • 14
    Arner P. Not all fat is alike. Lancet 1998;351:13012.
  • 15
    Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I, Nakamura T, Keno Y, Kotani K, Tokunaga K. Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of visceral fat obesity. Obes Res 1995;3(Suppl 2):187S94S.
  • 16
    Barzilai N, She L, Liu BQ, Vuguin P, Cohen P, Wang J, et al. Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance. Diabetes 1999;48:948.
  • 17
    Despres JP. Dyslipidaemia and obesity. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;8:62960.
  • 18
    Peiris AN, Sothmann MS, Hoffmann RG, Hennes MI, Wilson CR, Gustafson AB, et al. Adiposity, fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk. Ann Intern Med 1989;110:86772.
  • 19
    Samaras A, Campbell LV. Increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in the third millennium: is abdominal fat the central issue? Diabetes Care 2000;23:4412.
  • 20
    Yamashita S, Nakamura T, Shimomura I, Nishida M, Yoshida S, Kotani K, et al. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution: contribution of visceral fat accumulation to the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care 1996;19:28791.
  • 21
    Holte J, Bergh T, Gennarelli G, Wide L. The independent effects of polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity on serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and sex steroids in premenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1994;41:47381.
  • 22
    Legro RS, Finegood D, Dunaif A. A fasting glucose to insulin ratio is a useful measure of insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:26948.
  • 23
    Rebuffe-Scrive M, Cullberg G, Lundberg PA, Lindstedt G, Bjorntorp P. Anthropometric variables and metabolism in polycystic ovarian disease. Horm Metab Res 1989;21:3917.
  • 24
    Douchi T, Ijuin H, Nakamura S, Oki T, Yamamoto S, Nagata Y. Body fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86:51619.
  • 25
    Kirchengast S, Huber J. Body composition characteristics and body fat distribution in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod 2001;16:125560.
  • 26
    Yildirim B, Sabir N, Kaleli B. Relation of intra-abdominal fat distribution to metabolic disorders in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2003;79:135864.
  • 27
    Holte J, Bergh T, Berne C, Berglund L, Lithell H. Enhanced early insulin response to glucose in relation to insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:10528.
  • 28
    Holte J, Bergh T, Berne C, Wide L, Lithell H. Restored insulin sensitivity but persistently increased early insulin secretion after weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995;80:258693.
  • 29
    Norman RJ, Davies MJ, Lord J, Moran LJ. The role of lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002;13:2517.
  • 30
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393403.
  • 31
    Lord JM, Flight IH, Norman RJ. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for polycystic ovary syndrome (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(3):CD003053.
  • 32
    Orchard TJ, Temprosa M, Goldberg R, Haffner S, Ratner R, Marcovina S, et al. The effect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:61119.
  • 33
    Pasquali R, Gambineri A, Biscotti D, Vicennati V, Gagliardi L, Colitta D, et al. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:276774.
  • 34
    Kvist H, Sjostrom L, Tylen U. Adipose tissue volume determinations in women by computed tomography: technical considerations. Int J Obes 1986;10:5367.
  • 35
    Lord JM, Flight IHK, Norman RJ. Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327:9513.
  • 36
    Fleming R, Hopkinson ZE, Wallace AM, Greer IA, Sattar N. Ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with oligomenorrhea treated with metformin in a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:56974.
  • 37
    Ng EHY, Wat NMS, Ho PC. Effects of metformin on ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovaries: a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2001;16:162531.
  • 38
    Tang T, Glanville J, Hayden CJ, White D, Barth JH, Balen AH. Combined lifestyle modification and metformin in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre study. Hum Reprod 2006;21:808.